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恶魔奶爸语法7-9课

7.把一个句子连接到另一个句子上,变身“大副词”

时间状语从句:一个句子在另外一个句子里面充当时间状语

  • 当…的时候:
    • when…/as…:从句多用一般态,可接短暂动词,也可接延续动词
      • When he began to play a tune, we had our first glimpse of the snake. 当他开始吹奏一支曲子时,我们才第一次看到那条蛇。
      • I looked down and nearly fell off the ladder when I saw a policeman. 当我看清是一个警察时,差一点儿从梯子上掉下去。
      • As the thieves were trying to get away in their car, Roy drove his bus into the back of it. 当那两个小偷企图乘车逃跑时,罗伊驾驶他的公共汽车撞在了那辆车的后尾上。
      • As she walked away, I followed her out of the fair. 8当她走开时,我也跟着她出了集市
    • while…:强调动作进行,从句多用进行态,只能接延续动词
      • While he was eating, I asked him to lend me twenty pounds. 当他吃饭时,我提出向他借20英镑。
      • While the battered car was moving away, Roy stopped his bus and telephoned the police. 当那辆被撞坏的车开走后,罗伊停下车,给警察挂了电话。
    • when有时候也有“就在此时”的意思,用以说明前一个分句的时间。这是,when引导的从句必须放在主句后面。
      • I had nearly reached the town, when the young man suddenly said, very slowly, ‘Do you speak English?’ 就要到达那个镇时,那青年突然开了口,慢慢地说道: “你会讲英语吗?”
      • I was almost there when a sarcastic voice below said, ‘I don’t think the windows need cleaning at this time of the night.’ 快要爬到窗口时,下面一个人用讽刺的口吻说:“ 我看不必在夜里这个时候擦窗子吧。”
  • 如果时间状语从句表示将来,一般将来时要改为一般现在时
    • I will be a teacher when I grow up. 我长大的时候,要做一个老师。(虽然 “长大”发生在将来,但因为是时间状语从句,所以用一般现在时)
    • whenever无论何时,每当,是when的强调形式
      • Whenever you have an aim, you must sacrifice something of freedom to attain it.每当有了目标,你必须牺牲一定的自由去达到目标
      • Forgive others whenever you can.得饶人处且饶人。
  • while既可以用作副词连词,也可以作并列连词
    • 1.表示“当…时”,while视为副词连词,引导状语从句,此时两个句子通常时态不同。
      • While two detectives were keeping guard at the door, two others opened the parcel.两个侦探在门口站岗期间,另外两个侦探打开了包裹。(时态不同)
      • A robot-arm will grab the telescope and hold it while the astronauts make the necessary repairs.当宇航员进行必要的修复工作时,“奋进”号上的一只机器手将抓住望远镜并托住它。(时态不同)
    • 2.表示“而…”,while视为并列连词,连接两个分句,此时两个句子时态相同
      • When the plane arrived, some of the detectives were waiting inside the main building while others were waiting on the airfield.当飞机到达时,一些侦探等候在主楼内,另一些侦探则守候在停机坪上。
  • before/after,通常接短暂动词,但可也接延续动词
    • After I had left a small village in the south of France, I drove on to the next town. 在离开法国南部的一个小村庄后,我继续驶往下一个城镇。
    • After he has retired, he will devote himself to gardening. 他退休后,将致力于园艺。
    • Before he retired, Frank was the head of very large business company, but as a boy he used to work in a small shop. 在退休前,弗兰克是一家非常大的商业公司的经理,但他小时候却在一家小铺里做工。
  • before用以说明主句的时间很长,翻译为“才”。用以说明主句的时间很短,翻译为“就”。这时,before引导的从句必须放在主句后面
    • Nearly a week passed before the girl was able to explain what had happened to her. 几乎过了一个星期,那姑娘才能讲述自己的遭遇。
  • 直到:until/till,从句只能接短暂动词,主句肯定用延续动词,主句否定用短暂动词
    • The young man did not wake up until the bed had struck the ground. 那年轻人直到床撞到地上才醒了过来。(not..util… 翻译为直到….才…)
    • He waited until the volcano became quiet and he was able to return two days later.他等到火山平静下来,两天以后又返回去。
  • 一…就…:as soon as/ the moment(只能接短暂动词)
    • As soon as he had got into the car, I said good morning to him in French and he replied in the same language.他一上车,我就用法语向他问早上好,他也同样用法语回答我。
    • As soon as this was done, they cooked a meal over an open fire. 这件事刚刚做完,他们就在篝火上烧起了饭。
    • The moment you leave this tent, you will get a big surprise. 您一走出这个帐篷,就会大吃一惊。
  • 刚…就…:no sooner…than…(主句动作已完成),hardly/scarcely…when/before…(主句动作差点完成),主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时,且只能接短暂动词
    • He had no sooner returned than he bought a house and went to live there. 他刚一回到英国便买下了一幢房子住了进去。
    • He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. 还没等安顿下来就卖掉了房子,离开了这个国家。
    • I had scarcely fallen asleep before the noise from neighbor woke me up. 我刚一睡着,邻居发出的噪音就把我吵醒了。
  • 自从…:since/ever since(可以接短暂动词,也可接延续动词),since后面不可以接完成时的,只能接一般态的短暂动词
    • He has just bought a new house in the city, but ever since he moved in, he has had trouble with cars and their owner.他刚在城里买下一所新房子,但自从搬进去后,就和汽车及车主们发生了磨擦。
    • We haven’t seen each other since we graduated.自从毕业后我们彼此就没有见过面。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.当我走进这座大楼的时候,看见一位拿着公文包的女士(while)。
      • 1.I saw a lady with a briefcase while I was walking into the building.
    • 2.当你长大,你就会知道父母有多伟大。
      • 2.When you grow up, you will know how great your parents are.
    • 3.每当你发现你和多数人站在同一边时,就是改革的时候了。
      • 3.Whenever you find that you are on the side of the majority, it is the time to reform.
    • 4.玛丽打开礼物后,便开始写感谢函(thank-you notes)了。
      • 4.After she opened her gifts, Mary started writing thank-you notes.
    • 5.雨一停,天空中就出现了一道彩虹。
      • 5.As soon as the rain stooped, a rainbow appeared in the sky.
    • 6.比赛才刚刚开始,两个队就打了起来。(no sooner.. .than)
      • 6.The game had no sooner started than the two teams began to fight.
      1. Lulu刚用她的新电脑,电脑就坏了。(hardly..when)
        • 7.Lulu had hardly used her new computer when it broke.
    • 8.我们会待在海边直到天黑。
      • 8.We are going to stay at the beach until it gets dark.
    • 9.已经过了三个月,大卫才提到他生病了。
      • 9.It had been three months before David mentioned he was sick.
    • 10.我在电影院门口等Lisa,不久以后她就到了。
      • 10.We waited for Lisa in front of the cinema and it was not long before she arrived.

地点状语从句:一个句子在另外一个句子里面充当地点状语

  • 地点状语从句的连词是where,但是要注意,where引导的地点状语从句,不仅可以表示地点,还可以表示抽象意义“在…形势之下”
    • Where there is a will, there is a way.有志者,事竟成。
    • Where there is a smoke, there is fire.无风不起浪
    • A driver should slow down where there are schools. 在有学校的地方, 司机应缓行。
    • Where the cost of government is high, resources for development are corresponding low.凡是政府管理费用高的地方,用于发展国家经济的资金就会相应地减少。
    • Where others ran away in fear, the soldier bravely fought against the enemy.在其他人惊慌逃跑的情况下,这名士兵英勇地抗击敌军。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.有生命就有希望。
      • 1.Where there is life, there is hope.
    • 2.在我成长的地方,人们在马路上都是靠右行驶。
      • 2.Where I grew up, people drive on the right side of the road.
    • 3.医生建议我住在空气更新鲜的地方。
      • 3.The doctor advised me to live where the air is fresher.
    • 4.在你有足够信心的前提下,你将会成功。
      • 4.Where you have enough confidence, you will succeed.
    • 5.无论你去哪里,无论你做什么,我将一直在这儿等你。
      • 5.Wherever you go, whatever you do, I will be right here waiting for you.

原因状语从句:一个句子在另外一个句子里面充当原因状语

  • because, as, since, for, in that均可引导原因状语从句
  • because语气最强(强调从句),只有它能回答why的提问,也只有because才能被强调词only, just, perhaps来修饰
  • for/in that语气最弱(强调主句),所以只能放在主句后面。for表示推断的理由,故多用于主句后面
  • 注:汉译英的时候,“既然”翻译为since,“由于”翻译为as
    • Teenagers are damaging their health because they play computer games too much. 因为青少年们玩电脑游戏太多,他们的健康正在受损。
    • Perhaps because Mom missed so much time with her own kids, she made it up with her grandchildren. 或许我妈妈错过了太多与她自己的孩子在一起的时间,因此她在孙辈中找到补偿。
    • As a great many people will be visiting the country, the government will be building new hotels, an immense stadium, and a new Olympic-standard swimming pool. 由于将有大批的人到我们国家来,所以政府准备建造一些新的饭店、一个大型体育场和一个新的奥运会标准游泳池
    • I will seek to balance career and family since both are important to me. 由于事业和家庭对我都重要,我要努力在两者之间取得平衡。
    • He had had a long and uncomfortable trip, for he had been confined to the wooden box for over ten hours. 他经历了一次漫长而又难受的旅程,因为他在那木箱里闷了18个多小时。
    • He didn’t attend the negotiation in that he was ill. 他因为有病,没有参加谈判
  • because和because of的区别:because of是介词短语,后面只能接名词,不能接句子。类似的介词短语还有due to, in view of, thanks to, owning to
    • Because of this, he has not been able to get his own car into his garage even once.为此,他甚至一次也没能把自己的车开进车库。
    • Owning to the heavy rain, there have been many mudslides in the hill lately.因为大雨,最近山区发生多起泥石流。
    • Thanks to great public transportation, few people in the city need to own cars.因为有很好的公交系统,这个城市很少有人需要自己买车。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.我们将取消音乐会,因为音乐家出了意外,现在人在医院里。
      • 1.We will cancel the concert because the musician had an accident and is in the hospital.
    • 2.由于下周一是法定假日,所有的政府机关都将休息。
      • 2.As next Monday is a national holiday, all government offices will be closed.
    • 3.既然你是英语专业的,我猜想你能帮助我学习这个句子。
      • 3.Since you are an English major, I guess you can help me study this sentence.
    • 4.这个问题的答案我很久都理解不透(eludeme),也许是因为问题太简单了。
      • 4.The answer to this question eluded me for a long time, perhaps because it was so simple.
    • 5.昨晚下雨了,因为今天早上地面是湿的。
      • 5.It rained last night, for the ground is wet this morning.

结果状语从句:就是中文里边说的”如此…….以至于……”。连接结果状语从句的连词有: so..that….., such..that…, so that

  • so…that…: so后面要接形容词或副词,或相当于形容词的分词
    • Mrs. Sterling got so angry that she ran after them.斯特林夫人非常气愤,向着他们追了过去。
    • My friend, Hugh, has always been fat, but things got so bad recently that he decided to go on a diet.我的朋友休一直很胖,但是近来情况变得越发糟糕,以致他决定节食。
    • He did the work so badly that I had to do it all over again myself. 他干的太差劲了,我只好亲自重做
    • 本句型的so可用enough取代,但是enough要后置
      • She is old enough that she can get married = She is so old that she can get married.她已达到可结婚的年龄。
      • In the new country he became absorbed in making a new life for the two of us, so that he gradually ceased to grieve. 在这个新的国家里,父亲专心致志地为我们俩开创一种新的生活,慢慢地不伤心了。
  • such…that…:such后面要接名词
    • The men got such a fright that they dropped the bag and ran away.这两个人吓了一跳,扔下提包逃跑了。
  • so是so that…的省略形式,so既可以是副词,也可以是连词。so引导的句子,不仅可以用逗号连接,也可以单独成句
    • My brother has never been abroad before, so he is finding this trip very exciting. 我弟弟以前从未出过国,因此,他觉得这次旅行非常激动人心。
    • To make matters worse, the room is rather small, so I have temporarily put my books on the floor. 更糟糕的是,房间还非常小,所以我暂时把书放在了地板上。
  • so作副词,其引导的句子,也可以和前面的句子分开。
    • The children were at school, my husband was at work and the house was quiet. So I decided to make some meat pies. 孩子们在上学,我丈夫在上班,家里清静得很。于是我决定做些肉馅饼。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.湖面上的雾太浓,所以我们不能看到对岸。
      • 1.The fog on the lake was very thick, so we couldn’t see the other side.
    • 2.玛丽很贴心,以至于大家都很喜欢她。
      • 2.Mary is so sweet that everyone loves her.
    • 3.他们是很糟糕的厨师以至于没人去他们的餐厅。
      • 3.They are such terrible cooks that no one came to their restaurant.

目的状语从句

  • 一般翻译为“以便于”,常用连词有so that, in order that, that, 主句和从句一般没有逗号隔开,在目的状语从句中,常含有情态动词
    • He worked hard at his lessons so that he could gain high grades in the exams.他努力学习功课,争取考试能获得好成绩。(目的状语从句)
    • He worked hard at his lessons, so that he could gain high grades in the exams.他努力学习,结果考试获得了好成绩。(结果状语从句)
    • This time he was barking so that someone would let him out! 这次它叫着让人把它放出去!
    • This time, he managed to climb into the mouth of Kituro so that he could take photographs and measure temperatures. 这次他设法爬进了基图罗火山口,以便能拍摄照片和测试温度。
    • They had taken special precautions so that no one should recognize them. 他们做了特别的预防措施以防别人认出他们。
    • I am saving money in order that I can buy a house.我正在攒钱,以便我能买一所房子。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.这位电影明星伪装自己,以便在人群中不被认出来。
      • 1.The movie star disguised himself so that he wouldn’t be recognized in the crowd.
    • 2.我们应该早起以便能看到日出。
      • 2.We should wake up early in the morning in order that we can see the sun rise.

让步状语从句

  • 表示“虽然。。。但是。。。”,副词连词有:though, although, even though, even if。但和中文不同,主语前不可再加but,但可用yet/still
  • though, although, even though是对事实的让步,翻译为“虽然,尽管”
  • even if是对假设的让步,翻译为“即使,哪怕是”
    • Though she hesitated for a moment, she finally went in and asked to see a dress that was in the window. 她虽然犹豫了片刻,但终于还是走进了商店,要求把陈列在橱窗里的一件衣服拿给她看。
    • Although the bed was smashed to pieces, the man was miraculously unhurt. 尽管床摔成了碎片,但年轻人却奇迹地没有受伤。
    • Even though it was still summer, it rained continually and it was often bitterly cold. 即使那时仍为夏季,但雨总是下个不停,而且常常冷得厉害。
    • The villagers have told him that they will not accept the pub even if he gives it away. 村里的人已经告诉他,即使他把小酒店白送人,他们也不要。
  • while/whereas也可以引导让步状语从句,相当于though或although
    • While winning is not everything, trying to win is everything.尽管获胜并不重要,但是为了获胜而努力却很重要。
    • Whereas you cannot turn back the clock, you can take control of your life.虽然你不能使时钟倒转,但却可以掌控自己的生活。
  • no matter wh-(how, what, who, which, when, where)或者however, whatever..也可引导让步状语从句
    • No matter how busy you are, he always insists on coming with you. 不管你多忙,他总是坚持要跟你去。(No matter how=however)
    • No matter what you do, do with your might. 无论你做什么,要尽力。(No matter what=whatever)
    • No matter who he is, he must obey the law.无论他是谁,都必须遵守法律。(No matter who=whoever)
    • No matter which people criticize you, don’t let them take your focus off your dream.无论什么人批评你,都不要让他们破坏你的梦想! (No matter which=whichever)
    • No matter where you live, you would find it difficult not to laugh at, say, Charlie Chaplin’s early films.比如说,不管你生活在哪里,你看查理.卓别林的早期电影很难不发笑。
    • Whatever may happen, you must keep calm.不论什么事发生,你必须保持冷静。
    • The business would be a success, whoever owned it.不论什么人经营,这生意都会成功。
  • whether也可以引导让步状语从句,表示“无论…”常和or或or not一起使用
    • Whether we realize it or not, each of us has the strong desire to success.不管我们是否意识到,我们都有成功的愿望。
    • Whether we win or lose, we should respect the election result.无论是输还是赢,我们应该尊重选举结果。
    • Whether or not he will stay, I really don’t care.他要走还是要留,我真的不关心。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.虽然他是我兄弟,但我们长得不像。
      • 1.Though he is my brother, we don’t look alike.
    • 2.尽管我父亲已经到了退休年龄,却打算继续工作。
      • 2.My father plans to carry on working even though he is old enough to retire .
    • 3.尽全力去奋斗,不管是否喜欢。
      • 3.Try your best to fight, whether you enjoy it or not.
    • 4.无论是你做还是他做,这个工作今天都得做完。
      • 4.Whether you or he do it, the work must be finished today

        方式状语从句

  • 表示动作的方式,意思是“就像…一样,以…样的方式”,引导词有as, as if, as though, the way
    • When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 入乡随俗。
    • The space shuttle, as we know it, is still imperfect. 航天飞机就像我们知道的一样仍然不完美。
    • He acted as if he had never lived in England before. 他的举动就好像他从未在英国生活过一样。
    • To achieve great things we must live as though we were never going to die. 做大事就要有永生的气概!
    • You should do it the way you were taught. 按照教你的那样去做
  • 美式英语可用like代替as if, as though,但是书面语中少用
    • He studies English very hard, like he did Chinese some years ago. 他非常用功地学英语,就像多年前学中文一样。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.你应该像规划假期一样规划你的退休生活。
      • 1.You should plan your retirement as you plan your vacation.
    • 2.请照我这样,读这个单词
      • 2.Please pronounce the word the way I do

8.定语从句不一定是真定语,而是并列句的马甲

定语从句是什么

一个句子,在另一个句子里边,作定语。

定语从句的其实是两个并列句的合并

  • Captain Fawcett’s first passenger was a doctor who flew from Birmingham to a lonely village in the Welsh mountains.
  • 这句话里边,who指的是主句提到的the doctor,那么,如果按照传统语法来翻译就是: Fawcett机长的第一个乘客是一个从伯明翰飞到南威尔士一个偏僻村子去的医生。
  • Captain Fawcett’s first passenger was a doctor and the doctor flew from Birmingham to a lonely village in the Welsh mountains.
  • 因为后面分句的the doctor,其实就是主句里边的doctor,所以,后面那个句子的the doctor就可以改成who,然后去掉and,就变成定语从句了。

定语从句的连接词,叫关系词,分为两大类

  • 1.代词类关系词
    • (1)关系代词
    • (2)关系代词所有格
    • (3)复合关系代词
  • 2.副词类关系词
    • (1)关系副词

关系代词

  • 概述
    • 替代前面的先行词,在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。
    • 代替人时,坐主语用主格who,作宾语用宾格whom
    • 代替物,或代替整个句子,无论作主语还是宾语,均用which
  • 限定性定语从句:先行词为一般名词,关系代词引导的定语从句
    • Captain Fawcett’s first passenger was a doctor who flew from Birmingham to a lonely village in the Welsh mountains.(who作主格,代替doctor) 弗西特机长的第一名乘客是位医生,他从伯明翰飞往威尔士山区一个偏僻的村庄。
    • He is a man whom we should respect.他是一个我们应该尊重的人。(whom做宾语,代替man)注:在美国英语中,whom作宾语时,也可用who代替。把whom we should respect.直接翻译成定语“我们应该尊重的”比较好
    • In a few years the small workshop had become a large factory which employed 728 people.(which作主语,代替factory)几年之后,小铺子已经发展成了一个雇有728人的大工厂。把which employed 728 people.直接翻译成定语“雇有728人的“比较好
    • Forest fire often caused by cigarette ends which people carelessly throw away.(which作宾语,代替cigarette ends)森林火灾时常由人们随手扔掉的香烟头引起
    • In 1948, he went to Lake Kivu to observe a new volcano which he later named Kituro.(which作宾语,代替volcano, 而定语从句里边的Kituro是宾语补语)1948年他去了基伍湖,对一座后来被他命名为基图罗的新火山进行观察
  • 作介词的宾语时,可以将介词移动到关系词之前,一般正式的书面语,是把介词放在关系代词前面
    • Peter is a man whom I enjoy working with.
    • Peter is a man with whom I enjoy working.
    • The city in which I live is very large.
    • The city which I live in is very large.
  • 非限定性定语从句:若定语从句只对先行词进行补充说明,则关系词前面可加上逗号
  • 先行词为一般名词,但其前面已经有限定词或形容词修饰时,其后既可用限定性定语从句,也可用非限定性定语从句
    • He waved desperately to his companion, who had been water-skiing for the last fifteen minutes.他绝望地向他的伙伴挥手,他的伙伴在过去的15分钟里一直在滑水
  • 先行词为专有名词(人名或地名)及独一性名词(如father, mother…)时,因为本身就具有特殊性,其后关系代词引导的定语从句,必须是非限定性定语从句
    • Einstein, who was a great scientist, created the theory of relativity. 爱因斯坦这位伟大的科学家发明了相对论。
    • Beijing, which is the capital of China, has developed into an international city.北京,中国的首都,已经成为了一个国际大都市。
    • Among them will be Debbie’s mother, who swam the Channel herself when she was a girl.他们当中还会有黛比的母亲,她本人还是个女孩时,也曾横渡过英吉利海峡!
  • 先行词为整个主句时,定语从句也多是非限定性定语从句
    • Jimmy is a naughty boy, which everyone knows. 吉米是一个顽皮的孩子,这点大家都知道
  • that也可作关系代词,取代who, whom, which, 但that前不能有逗号,也不能有介词
    • This is the sort of thing that Jeremy loves. 这正是杰里米喜欢做的事情。
    • A game that is very popular with these young swimmers is the underwater tricycle race.这些幼小的游泳运动员非常喜爱的一种游戏是水下三轮车比赛。
  • 只能用that的情况:
    • 1.先行词同时出现“人”和“物”时
      • The scientist and his inventions that the article deals with are quite familiar to us.这篇文章里说的那位科学家和他的发明,我们都比较熟悉。
    • 2.先行词是不定代词(something, anything, nothing, everything)时
      • I would much rather receive something that made me laugh.我更愿意接受能让我高兴的东西
      • A variable is something that can be changed and controlled.变量是能够被改变和控制的东西。(美国加州3年级科学课本)
    • 3.先行词被绝对性形容词修饰时(如序数词,形容词的最高级,the very, the only, all, every, no等修饰时)
      • Of course, the Hubble is above the earth’s atmosphere, so it will soon be sending us the clearest pictures that we have ever seen.当然,哈勃位于地球的大气层之外,因此,它很快就会给我们传送我们所见到过的、有关行星和远距离星系的最清晰的照片。
      • All the students that are studying in our class is hardworking.尽管有上述种种说法,但游客们还是照常摘树叶和把他们的名字刻在树干上。
    • 4.句中有两个相同关系代词引导的定语从句时,为避免重复,其中一个用that
      • He works hard, which is a fact that is known to us.他很用功,这时我们都知道的事实。
      • My best friend was devastated by the letter which she received that rejected her application to university.[that和which也可互换]我最好的朋友被那封她收到的拒绝她入大学申请的信打击了。
      • There was no trace of fingerprints, but the inspector found a dirty red bundle that contained jewellery which the old lady said was not hers.巡官没有发现指纹,却发现了一个装有珠宝的、肮脏的红包袱。老妇人说那不是她的。
    • 5.限定性定语从句中,若关系代词作及物动词的宾语,该关系代词可省略。若作介词的宾语,则将介词放在词尾,再省略关系代词
      • It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen.(定语从句前省略了作宾语的关系代词that) 这是我见过的最丑陋的头像之一。
      • That was all she remembered.(定语从句前省略了作宾语的关系代词that) 她所记得的就是这些。
      • The picture it sent us were very disappointing because its main mirror was faulty!(定语从句前省略了作直接宾语的关系代词that或which)它传送给我们的图像很令人失望,因为它的主要镜子有误差。
      • Peter is a man I enjoy working with.(定语从句前省略了whom)彼得是一个我喜欢和他共事的人。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.双语人士(bilingual) 就是能说两种语言一样好的人。
      • 1.A bilingual is a person who can speak two languages equally well.
    • 2.不要和自己了解不充分的人交朋友。
      • 2.Don’t make friends with those whom(who) you do not know well.
    • 3.要参加比赛的人必须在本周五之前报名(signup)。
      • 3.People who want to attend the competition must sign up by this Friday.
    • 4.Lulu买了那件她想要的价值不菲的裙子。
      • 4.Lulu bought that expensive skirt which she wanted.
    • 5.我把我银行账户里边的最后一美元花掉了。
      • 5.I spent the last dollar that I had left in my bank account.
    • 6.我喜欢我的学校,它以优良的设施闻名。
      • 6.I like my school, which is famous for its excellent facilities.
    • 7.我在聚会上遇到很多小学同学,其中一些我都认不出来了。
      • 7.I met many elementary schoolmates at the party, some of whom I didn’t recognize.
    • 8.彼得是个非常优秀的工程师,这点我们都知道。
      • 8.Peter is a very excellent engineer, which we all know.
    • 9.这位是我的女朋友,她英语说得非常流利。
      • 9.This is my girlfriend, who can speak fluent English.

关系代词所有格

  • 由代词所有格his, her, their, my, your, its变化二来,关系代词所有格和后面的名词,共同作定语从句的主句,宾语
  • 无论代替人还是代替物,关系代词所有格均可用whose
  • 修饰物,也可用of which
  • of前面是代词的时候,不用whose,用of whom
    • Many people whose homes are in town want to live in the country.(whose代替人)很多家在城里的人都想住在乡下。
    • Be a man whose word is as good as your bond.(whose代替人)做一个说话可靠的人。
    • Success is a journey whose initial step is paved with an inner stirring.(whose代替物)成功是以此旅程,第一步是由内心的热情铺就的。
    • 也可改为:
    • Success is a journey of which the initial step is paved with an inner stirring.
    • Success is a journey, the initial step of which is paved with an inner stirring.
  • 名词/代词+of+whom/which这种结构,属于非限定性定语从句,表示从属关系
    • Light is the fastest thing in the world, the speed of which is 300.000 kilometers per second.(这里的先行词是speed是名词,所以可改成whose speed)光是世界上最快的东西,它的速度是每秒30万公里。
    • The old man has three sons, one of whom is a doctor.(这里的先行词one是代词,所以不能改成whose one..)这个男人有三个儿子,其中一个是医生。
    • There are 300 college students in the small hall, most of whom are freshmen.(先行词most是代词,所以不能改成whose most…)这个小厅里边有300个大学生,他们中的大多数是大一学生。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.这是玛丽,她的爸爸是我们学校的校长。
      • 1.This is Mary, whose father is the headmaster of our school.
    • 2.我们住在一栋老房子里,它的屋顶可能随时会崩塌(collapse)。
      • 2.We live in an old house whose roof may collapse anytime.
    • 3.这就是那台硬盘中病毒的电脑。
      • 3.This is the computer whose hard disk is infected with a virus

复合关系代词

  • 复合关系代词what,是先行词和关系代词融为一体,形成的关系代词,相当于the thing that。所以复合关系代词引导的定语从句,前面绝对没有先行词
    • What John said may be true. = The thing that John said may be true. = What was said by john may be true.(也可用被动语态)约翰说的可能是真的。
    • He was astonished at what he found.看到的情景使他吃惊。
    • what也可由all that取代
      • Now all that was needed were the parents, but they were absent.现在,我们需要我们的父母,但是他们却不在。
      • All that Billy told us a year ago has become true.Billy一年前告诉我们的事情成真了
  • 造句练习
    • 1.我没有听到你刚才说的,能再说一遍吗?
      • 1.I didn’t hear what you just said. Could you say that again?
    • 2.我知道你的意思,但是我不同意。
      • 2.I know what you mean but I can’t agree with you.
  • 其它不常用复合关系代词:
    • 1.代替人:
      • whoever = anybody who(凡是…的人)
      • whomever = anybody whom(凡是…的人)
    • 2.代替物:
      • whatever = anything which(…的任何东西)
    • 3.代替人或物:
      • whichever = any one which/who(三者以上同类的任何一个)
      • = either which/who(二者同类的任何一个)
  • 代词whatever是what的强调形式,相当于anything which
    • She would do whatever she wanted to. = She would do anything which she wanted to.她想要做什么就做什么。
  • 代词whoever有时也可视为复合关系代词,相当于anybody who
    • Whoever plays with fire gets burnt. = Anybody who plays with fire gets burnt.玩火者必自焚。
    • I’ll teach English to whoever wants to learn it. = I’ll teach English to anybody who wants to learn it.谁想学英文,我就教他。

副词类关系词

  • 一共有3种,均由“介词+关系代词which”变化而来
    • 1.where = in which, on which, at which 代替表地方的名词
    • 2.when = in which, on which, at which 代替表时间的名称
    • 3.why = for which 代替the reason
  • 在限定性定语从句中,where不能省略,when和why可以省略
    • Mrs. Brabante is talking to the manager of the local factory where the crop is processed.(where=in the factory=in which,在从句里边作地点状语)布拉班特太太现在正和负责通心粉加工的当地加工厂的经理交谈。
    • There will be moments in life when you are confronted with new options.(when = in these moments = in which在从句里边作时间状语)人生中总有会面对新选择的时候。
    • Unsuccessful people can always find reasons why they are not doing well.(why = for these reasons = for which, 在从句中作原因状语。而且这个句子中,不仅可以省略why。还可以保留why,省略reasons,此时变成宾语从句Unsuccessful people can always find why they are not doing well.)不成功的人总能找到自己表现不好的理由。
  • the way后面的定语从句
    • 先行词是名词the way的时候,后面的关系副词是in which或者that,而且可省略
      • The assistant who served her did not like the way she was dressed.(the way后面省略了in which/that)接待她的售货员不落欢她的那刚打扮。
      • I liked the way she organized the meeting.(the way后面省略了in which/that)我喜欢她组织会议的方法
      • I hate the way in which he stares at me.我讨厌他那样盯着我
      • The only way that they can preserve their history is to recount it as sagas.他们保存历史的唯一办法是将历史当作传说讲述。
    • 上面句型中的the way(in which/that)可被how取代,变成宾语从句,意思不变。但用得不多
      • The assistant who served her did not like how she was dressed.
      • I liked how she organized the meeting.
      • I hate how he stares at me.
    • the way也可作副词连词引导方式状语从句
      • I admire the way you speak to your students.(定语从句)
      • You should do it the way you were taught.(方式状语从句)
  • where, when代替的先行词作be动词的表语时,可省略先行词,保留关系副词
    • This is (the place) where he was born.这是他出生的地方。
    • That is (the day) when he will come.那就是他要来的日子。
  • 某些表示时间的名词短语,后面接着没有引导词的句子,其实就是省略了关系副词when。by the time, at the time, next time, every time, the first time, the day…
    • Every time he wanted to come into the garden he would bark until someone opened the gate.
    • By the time you read this, the Hubble’s eagle eye will have sent us thousands and thousands of wonderful pictures.
  • 造句练习
    • 1.上午11点是考试结束时间,那时所有学生都必须放下笔(put down)。
      • 1.Eleven a.m. is the time when the exam will be over and all students must put their pens down.
    • 2.我想知道你今天上午,上学迟到的原因。
      • 2.I want to know the reason why you were late to school this morning.
    • 3.月球上有一个地方,是Neil Armstrong所踏出的第一 步。
      • 3.There is a spot on the moon where Neil Armstrong took his first step.
    • 4.这是他处理问题的方法。
      • 4.This is the way he handled problems. / This is how he handled problems.
    • 5.我们有时把荒岛想象成某种阳光终日普照的天堂。
      • 5.We sometimes imagine a desert island to be a sort of paradise where the sun always shines.

9.英语长句子的简化方法

并列句的转化

  • 分词短语的构成和功能
    • 分词,就是指动词的另外两种形式,一种是现在分词,另一种是过去分词
  • 并列句实质上就是两个简单句放在一起,并无主次之分
    • 请看下面两个句子:
    • We are sitting by the sea.我们坐在海边。
    • We can see the beautiful sunrise. 我们可以看到美丽的日出。
    • 上述两个句子,如果放在一起, 形成并列句,那就是:
    • We are sitting by the sea and we can see the beautiful sunrise.
    • 注意:连词and绝对不能换成逗号,这点要牢记,和我们汉语的标点符号是不同的。因为英语中一个句号只能有一个主语
    • We are sitting by the sea, we can see the beautiful sunrise. (X)
  • 句子中的简化方法
    • 要强调哪个句子,就把哪个句子作为主句,另外一个不重要的,简化为分词短语
    • 前面句子不重要:Sitting by the sea, we can see the beautiful sunrise.
    • 后面句子不重要:We are sitting by the sea seeing the beautiful sunrise.
    • 并列句变成的分词短语,称为“伴随状语”,如果分词短语放在主句前面,一定要加上逗号,如果分词短语放在主句后面,逗号可要可不要
  • 分词短语:其实就是简化的句子
    • 两句主语相同时,被化简句子的主语要删除
      • He glanced at her scornfully and he told her that the dress was sold.他轻蔑地看了她一眼后,便告诉她那件衣服已经卖出去了。
      • 这是一个并列句,两个分词的主语都是he,所以可以将其中任何一个分句,化简为分词短语
      • 1.Glancing at her scornfully, he told her that the dress was sold.
      • 2.He glanced at her scornfully telling her that the dress was sold.
    • 两句主语不同的时候,被化简句子的主语要保留
      • We tried three new meals and the tastiest meal was the Thai dish. 我们试过3种新菜品,最好吃的是泰国菜。
      • 这个并列句第一个分句的主语是We, 第二个分句的主语是the tastiest meal。这时两个分句的主语不同,故必须保留下来
      • 1.We trying three new meals, the tastiest meal was the Thai dish.
      • 2.We tried three new meals, the tastiest meal being the Thai dish.
  • 并列句化简为分词短语的经典例句
    • Following in his father's footsteps many years later, Donald, also set up a world record. 很多年之后,马尔科姆爵士的儿子唐纳德踏着父亲的足迹,也创造了一项世界纪录。(相当于Donald followed in his father's footsteps many years later,…)
    • Working rapidly in the darkness, he soon changed into the dead man’s clothes.他在黑暗中忙活了一阵儿,很快就换上了死者的衣服。(相当于He worked rapidly in the darkness…)
    • The Channel Tunnel was officially opened on March 7, 1994, finally connecting Britain to the European continent.英法海底隧道于1994年3月7日正式开通,将英国与欧洲大陆连到了一起。
    • When it grew dark, she turned a suitcase into a bed and put the children inside it, covering them with all the clothes she could find. 天黑下来的时候,她把提箱当作小床,把两个孩子放了进去,又把所有能找到的衣服都盖在了孩子们身上。
    • Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding the dead on their return journey to the other world.成千上万只灯笼慢慢漂向大海,指引着亡灵返回另一个世界。(相当于drift out to sea and guide the dead on..)
    • This is a moving spectacle, for crowds of people stand on the shore watching the lanterns drifting away until they can be seen no more.这是一个感人的场面,人们成群地伫立在海岸上,注视着灯笼远去,直到再也看不见为止。(相当于stand on the shore and watch the lanterns…)
  • 若要化简的分句的动词是be动词(主系表句型,或被动语态),化简为分词being,而且可以将being省略
    • Sensitive to criticism, the bull forgot all about the matador and charged at the drunk.对批评很敏感,这头公牛忘了斗牛士,冲向这个酒鬼。(相当于 The bull was sensitive to criticism,…)
    • Now, dressed in a blue uniform and with a rifle over his shoulder, the prisoner marched boldly up and down in front of the camp.现在他身穿蓝军装,肩扛步枪,在军营门前大胆地来回走看。(相当于The prisoner was dressed in a blue uniform…)
    • Being a pop fan, she likes Jay Chou most.作为一个流行乐迷,周杰伦是她最喜欢的明星。
  • 注意事项
    • 进行时态be+现在分词的情况,这个时候的be动词不是系动词,而是助动词,不能简化成being
    • 比如He was playing basketball and he had a good time.这个时候前面分句的动词是play, 而不是was。所以只能改成Playing basketball, he had a good time.
  • 造句练习(分别用并列句和分词短语造句)
    • 1.日本发生强烈地震,造成重大伤亡(heavy losses)。
      • 1.A strong earthquake took place in Japan and caused heavy losses.
      • A strong earthquake took place in Japan causing heavy losses.
    • 2.然后他跳进车里,以最快的速度把车开走了(drive off)。
      • 2.Then, he jumped into the car and drove off as quickly as he could.
      • Then, jumping into the car, he drove off as quickly as he could.
    • 3.这位女演员很开心能演这个角色,于是答应主演这部电影。
      • 3.The actress was happy to play the role and accepted the offer to star in the film.
      • (Being) happy to play the role, the actress accepted the offer to star in the film.
    • 4.然后,她拿着画板走进我的房间,同时唱着流行歌曲。
      • 4.Then she marched into my room with her drawing board, singing a popular song.
      • Then she marched into my room with her drawing board and sang a popular song.
    • 5.我环视了一下身旁,惊奇地发现车里就只剩我一个乘客了
      • 5.I looked round and realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus.
      • Looking round, I realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus.

状语从句的化简

  • 在时间、条件、原因、结果、目的、让步、方式等状语从句中,其主语与主句的主语相同时,可化简为现在分词短语(being可省略)
    • Hearing the joke, we burst out laughing.听到这个笑话,我们大笑起来。(相当于时间状语从句When we heard the joke, we bust out laughing.)
    • Not realizing who she was, the assistant was eager to serve her this time.那个售货员没有认出她是谁,这一回接待她的态度非常殷勤。(相当于Because the assistant didn’t realize who she was, …)注,否定分词结构,not要放在分词前面
    • Tired of sleeping on the floor, a young man in Teheran saved up for years to buy a real bed.德黑兰的一个人年轻人由于对睡地板感到厌倦,于是积蓄多年买了一张真正的床。(Tired前面省略了being,化简之前为Because he was tired of…)
    • Not wanting to frighten the poor man, Mrs. Richards quickly hid in the small storeroom under the stairs.理查兹夫人不想吓到这个可怜的人,便赶紧躲到了楼梯下的小储藏室里。(相当于Because Mrs. Richards didn’t want to frighten the poor man, …)
    • It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday.我们假期的最后两个星期都在下雨,把我们的假期全毁了。(相当于结果状语从句so that it completely ruined our holiday)
    • She tried to explain the situation, saying 'It's only me', but it was too late.她试图解释现在的情况,于是说“是我,别怕”,但是太迟了。(相当于结果状语从句… so that she said…)
    • The Titanic turned just in time, narrowly missing the immense wall of ice which rose over 100 feet out of the water beside her.“泰坦尼克”拐弯很及时,紧贴着高出海面100英尺的巨大的冰墙擦过去。(相当于结果状语从句so that it missed the immense wall…)
    • Her first impulse was to go round all the rooms looking for the thieves.她的第冲动是走遍所有房间, 去寻找小偷。
    • Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else's life. Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice. 你的时间有限,所以不要浪费时间去过别人的生活。不要让别人的意见淹没了你内心的声音。(乔布斯名言)(相当于目的状语从…o that you can live someone else’s life.)
    • I bound the base of the tree with sticky tape, making it impossible for the ants to reach the aphides. 我用一条胶带把桃树底部包上,不让蚂蚁接近蚜虫。( 相当于目的状语从句…so that I could make it impossible for the ants to reach the aphides.)
    • I crossed the street to avoid meeting him, but he saw me and came running towards me. 我穿过马路以便避开他,但他看到我并朝我跑过来。(相当于方式状语从句the way he ran towards me)
    • He and his staff began throwing furniture out of the window. Chairs and tables went flying into the arcade. 他与店员动手向窗外投掷家具,椅子和桌子飞落到拱廊街上。(相当于方式状语从句the way they flew into the arcade)
    • He had a very sad look on his face. He walked looking only at the ground.他的脸色看起来非常悲伤。他走路时只看着地面。( 相当于方式状语从句,the way he looked only at the ground)
    • Every morning, he left home dressed in a smart black suit. 每天早晨,他穿上一身漂亮的黑色西装离家上班(相当于方式状语从句,the way he was dressed in a smart black suit.)
    • She enjoyed herself making the assistant bring almost everything in the window before finally buying the dress she had first asked for. 她开心地迫使那位售货员把橱窗里几乎所有的东西都拿了出来,最后才买下了她最先要看的那一件。(相当 于方式状语从句,the way she made the assistant…)
    • Mocked at by everybody, he had my sympathy. 尽管大家嘲笑他,但是我很同情他。(相当于让步状语从句Though he was mocked at by everybody, ..)
  • when, after, before, while, for, once, if, unless, though这些副词连词引导的状语从句化简成分词短语时,可以保留这些副词连词(before和after不能省略)
    • They have all been put to shame by a boy who, while playing truant, travelled 1,600 miles. 而有那么一个小男孩,他在逃学期间旅行了1,600英里,从而使上述所有逃学的孩子们都相形见绌了。(相当于时间状语从句while he played truant, …)
    • Even the bull seemed to feel sorry for him, for it looked on sympathetically until the drunk was out of the way before once more turning its attention to the matador. 好像连牛也在为他感到遗憾,因为它一直同情地看着醉汉,直到他的背影消逝,才重新将注意力转向斗牛士。(相当于时间状语从句before it once more turned its attention to the matador.)
    • He was sent to prison for failing to pay his debts and died in poverty in 1836. 他因无力还债而被捕入狱,最后于1836年在贫困中死去。(相当于原因状语从句for he failed to pay his debts…)
    • It is important that I do not despair when faced with difficulties.重要的是,当我面对困难的时候我不会绝望。(相当于时间状语从句…when I am faced with difficulties.)
    • Though a little suspicious this time, the policeman gave him the same answer.虽然那位警察这次有点疑心,但还是对他作了同样的回答。(相当于让步状语从句Though the policeman was a little suspicious, …
  • 造句练习: (分别用状语从句和分词短语造句)
    • 1.我没事做,所以感到很无聊。
      • 1.Because I have nothing to do, I felt bored.
      • Having nothing to do, I felt bored.
    • 2.你尚未满18岁,不能在便利店购买烟和酒。
      • 2.Because you are not eighteen years old yet, you can’t buy cigarettes or wine at a convenience store.
      • Not (being) eighteen years old yet, you can’t buy cigarettes or wine at a convenience store.
    • 3.因为不满意工资,很多工人罢工了。
      • 3.Because they are not satisfied with their wages, many workers went on strike.
      • Not (being) satisfied with their wages, many workers went on strike.
    • 4.除非受到邀请,否则你不可以参加明晚的聚会。
      • 4.Unless you are invited, you may not attend the party tomorrow night.
      • Unless (being) invited, you may not attend the party tomorrow night.
    • 5.虽然我们都知道真相,却保持沉默。
      • 5.Although we all know the truth, we remain silent.
      • Although knowing the truth, we all remain silent.
    • 6.那位渔民意识到这不是一条普通的鱼,于是千方百计不让它受到丝毫伤害。
      • 6.Because the fisherman realized that this was no ordinary fish, he made every effort not to damage it in any way.
      • Realizing that this was no ordinary fish, the fisherman made every effort not to damage it in any way.
    • 7.当地的屠户Sam Benton在把存款送往邮局的途中把钱包丢了。
      • 7.Sam Benton, the local butcher, had lost his wallet while he was taking his savings to the post-office.
      • Sam Benton, the local butcher, had lost his wallet while taking his savings to the post-office.
    • 8.尽管查尔斯不懂汉语,但是还是能够和我们交流。
      • 8.Though he didn’t understand Chinese, Charles was able to communicate with us.
      • Though not understanding Chinese, Charles was able to communicate with us.
    • 9.这部电影深刻解释了东西方文化的差异,结果引起了美国观众的强烈反响。
      • 9.The film exposes cultural differences between the East and the West, so that it aroused tremendous response in American audiences.
      • The film exposes cultural differences between the East and the West, arousing tremendous response in American audiences.
    • 10.听到这个消息时,他们都高兴得跳了起来。
      • 10.When they heard the news, they all jumped with joy.
      • Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy.

定语从句的化简

  • 定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,可化简为现在分词短语。法则是:删除关系代词,其后动词变成现在分词
    • Some children were playing games on the bank and there were some people rowing on the river.河岸上有些孩子正在玩耍,河面上有些人正在划船。(相当于定语从句,…who rowed on the river.)
    • Built in 1885, it was the oldest car taking part.该车造于1885年,是参赛车中最老的一辆。(相当于定语从句,…which took part)
    • I had all the usual symptoms of someone giving up smoking: a bad temper and an enormous appetite. 我具备了戒烟者通常表现出来的所有症状:脾气暴躁和食欲旺盛。(相当于定语从句,.. who give upsmoking..)
    • On a recent blog, Mr. Belinda wrote about VOA’s rules demanding accuracy and objectivity. 最近的一篇博客中,贝林达先生写了关于VOA要求客观性和准确性的规则。(相当于定语从句,… which demand..)
  • 如果定语从句是被动语态,或者主系表句型,be动词变成being后,可省略
    • The ‘taxi’ is a small Swiss aeroplane called a 'Pilatus Porter'. 这辆“出租汽车”是一架小型瑞士飞机,叫“皮勒特斯.波特“号。(called前省略了being, 如果用定语从句,则是…which is called a …)
    • Looking around, I realized with a shock that I was the only passenger left on the bus. 我环视了一下身旁,惊奇地发现车里就只剩我一个乘客了。(left前省略了being, 如果用定语从句,则是…who was left on the bus.)
    • Like his father, he was driving a car called Bluebird. 同他父亲一样,他也驾驶着一辆名 叫“蓝鸟”的汽车。
    • After reading an article entitled ‘Cigarette Smoking and Your Health’ I lit a cigarette to calm my nerves. 读完一篇题为《吸烟与健康》的文章之后,我点上了一枝香烟,来镇定一下自已紧张的神经。
    • I know an actor suitable for the part. 我认识一个适合扮演这个角色的演员。( 如果用定语从句,则是..who is suitable for the part.)
  • 造句练习 : (分别用定语从句和分词短语造句)
    • 1.乔治打开一个装着所有运动器材的大箱子。
      • 1.George opened a big box which contained all of his sports equipment.
      • George opened a big box containing all of his sports equipment.
    • 2.房主把贵重物品放在(keep)墙里边藏着的一个保险箱里。
      • 2.The owner of the house keeps his valuables in a safe which is hidden in the wall.
      • The owner of the house keeps his valuables in a safe hidden in the wall.
    • 3.那边那位正在同约翰说话的高个子男人是我的爸爸。
      • 3.The tall man who is talking to John over there is my father.
      • The tall man talking to John over there is my father.

分词短语的逻辑主语

  • 分词的主语和句子的主语不相同时,分词的主语必须保留!此时所形成的分词结构,称为分词的独立主格结构
    • Nobody having any more to say, the meeting was closed. 谁都无话可说,会议就结束了。(句子的主语是the meeting, 分词having的主语是nobody)
    • The village seemed deserted, the only sign of life being an ugly-looking black goat tied to a tree on a short length of rope in a field nearby. 村里似乎无人居住,唯一的生命迹象是附近田里一只面目可憎的黑山羊,用一截短绳拴在一棵树上。(句子的主语是The village, 分词being的主语是sign)
    • Because our 3D television installed, the whole family went into the living room. 因为我们的3D电视安装好了,全家人都进了客厅。(installed前面省略了being)
  • 独立主格结构也可由with引导,用于表示伴随状况、补充说明、具体举例等,或者表示原因
    • It is possible that upon such an occasion a battle ensued, with the sharks being driven away or killed.双方可能随之发生搏斗,搏斗结果是海豚赶走或咬死鲨鱼。
    • A car roared past, with smoke pouring from the exhaust.一辆小汽车呼啸而过,排气管冒出一团团黑烟。
    • The silence was suddenly broken when a large car, with its headlights on and its horn blaring, roared down the arcade.宁静突然被打破,一辆大轿车亮着前灯,响着喇叭,呼啸着冲进了拱廊街。
  • 独立主格结构中分词为being 的时候,可以省略
    • Last year, we were travelling across the Channel and Jane put a piece of paper with her name and address on it into a bottle. 去年,当我们横渡英吉利海峡时,简把写有她姓名和住址的一张纸条装进了一只瓶子。(her name and address后面省略了分词being,整个独立主格结构作定语修饰paper)
    • In the struggle, the strap broke and, with the bag in their possession, both men started running through the trees. 在争抢中,手提包的带断了,包落入这两个人手里,他们拔腿跑进了树林。(the bag后面省略了分词being, 整个独立主格结构作原因状语
    • She returned to the shop the following morning dressed in a fur coat, with a handbag in one hand and a long umbrella in the other. 第二天上午,她又来到这家商店,穿了一件裘皮大衣,一只手拎着一只手提包,另一只手拿着一把长柄伞。 (handbag和umbrella后面均省略了分词being,整个独立主格结构作伴随状语)
    • I sat down on one of those modern chairs with holes in it and waited. 我坐在一个新式的满是网眼儿的椅子上,等待着。(holes后面省略了分词being, 整个独立主格结构作定语,修饰chairs)
    • At that moment, a large black car with four officers inside it, stopped at the camp gates. 正在此时,一 辆黑色大轿车在军营门口停了下来。里面坐了4个军官。
  • 并列句简化为独立主格的时候,和普通分词短语一样,重要的分句作为主句,次要的作为独立主格
    • 比如:He came in and carried a book.
    • 简化为分词短语:He came in carrying a book
    • 也可以简化为独立主格:He came in with a book (being) in his hand.
  • 造句练习: (分别用从句和分词短语造句)
    • 1.由于房间很小,我们得站得非常靠近。
      • 1.Because the room is so small, we have to stand very close together.
      • The room being so small, we have to stand very close together.
    • 2.我们昨天吃了三顿饭,最好吃的是泰国料理。
      • 2.We had three meals yesterday and the tastiest was the Thai dish.
      • We had three meals yesterday, the tastiest being the Thai dish.
    • 3.这个男孩经常逃学,他爸爸很生气。
      • 3.The boy often play truant from school and his father get angry.
      • The boy often playing truant from school, his father gets angry.
    • 4.宁静突然被打破,一个凶恶的家伙(tough guy)瞪着眼睛拿着枪,闯进了(break into)银行。
      • 4.The silence was suddenly broken, when a tough guy whose eyes glared and who took a gun, broke into the bank.
      • The silence was suddenly broken, when a tough guy, with his eyes glaring and gun in his hand, broke into the bank.
  • 形成固定用法的几个独立主格结构(前面的主语we省略了)
    • Frankly speaking, ..:坦白说
      • Frankly speaking, it is difficult for me to understand what he is saying. 坦率地说,理解他正在说的事情是很困难的。
    • Broadly speaking…:泛泛地说
      • Broadly speaking, human beings may be divided into three classes. 泛泛地说,人可以分为3类。
    • Judging from…:有…看来
      • Judging from her accent, she must be from the North. 从她的口音判断,她一定是北方人。
    • Speaking of…:说道…
      • Speaking of his lover, his eyes sparkled. 谈到他的情人时,他的双眼闪烁着光芒。
    • Considering…:考虑到…
      • Considering her age, the girl’s letter is very well put together. 就她的年龄而论,她的信可以说是写得很好的。
  • 注意
    • 不管简化前的句子是什么时态,简化为分词短语时都是一样的V-ing形式。也就是说:不管简化前的句子是什么“时”,简化之后,通通不考虑其“时”,而只考虑其“态”。所以分词短语只有两种“态”:一般态和完成态。另外,定语从句简化为分词短语之后,绝对不能用完成态,所以绝对没有分词的完成态作定语的情况
    • 以动词do为例
    • 1.Singing a song, he sat down. 唱歌的时候,他就坐下了
    • 2.Having sung a song, he sat down. 唱完歌后,他坐下了
    • 第一句话是分词的一般态,表示“唱歌”这个动作(延续动作)和“坐下”这个动作同时发生。第二句话是分词的完成态,表示“唱歌”这个动作先发生
  • 构成分词短语的动词,不管延续还是非延续动词,简化成完成态以后都是having done。分词是没有进行态完成进行态的。
    • Having watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn. 浇完花园以后,他开始修剪草坪。
    • Not having done his homework, the boy went outside to play. 虽然这个男孩没有写完作业,他还是跑出去玩。
    • Having been bitten twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog up. 被狗咬了两次以后,这个邮递员拒绝给我们送信,除非我们把狗锁起来。
  • 造句练习: (分别用从句和分词短语造句)
    • 1.已经失败了3次,他不想再尝试了。
      • 1.Because he has failed three times, he didn’t want to try again.
      • Having failed three times, he didn’t want to try again.
    • 2.因为在飓风中失去了他的货物,这个船长在船到达港口以后面临破产(bankruptcy)。
      • 2.Because he had lost his cargo in a hurricane, the captain faced bankruptcy after his vessel reached port.
      • Having lost his cargo in a hurricane, the captain faced bankruptcy after his vessel reached port.
    • 3.接到关于地震的警告,他把小孩留在了学校。
      • 3.He had been warned about the earthquake, he left his child in school.
      • Having been warned about the earthquake, he left his child at school.