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恶魔奶爸语法4-6课

4.被动语态的重难点——不完全及物动词和授予动词补充

  • 第四大句型,主谓宾补,其实就是“让某人做某事”
    • My mother made me wash the car.
    • 宾语是“我”,宾补是“洗车”,也就是说,宾语和宾补放在一起,逻辑上可以构成一个句子“我洗车”。
    • 宾语和宾补之间的关系是被动语态呢?
    • 他让这个任务完成了。
    • 如果按照造句规律,应该是: He made this task be finished.或者He get this task to be finished.
    • 宾补中,出现的be或者to be,通常要省略!所以,这句话应该说成: He made this task finished.
  • 英语中还有什么时候会出现be动词呢?
    • 除了被动语态(过去分词作表语)之外,还有主系表句型(be动词后面的名词作表语,形容词作表语,地点副词作表语)
  • 使役动词+宾语+过去分词(补语)
    • Now a group of students will have the plane restored.一群学生计划修复这架飞机。
    • Officials have the clock checked twice a day.官员们每天两次派人检查此钟。
  • 使役动词+宾语+名词、形容词或地点副词
    • 使役动词也可加名词、形容词或地点副词等作补语,其原因是前面省略了不定式be或to be。
      • His teacher made him a good student. (名词作宾补)他的老师使他成为好学生。
      • The trip made him happy.(形容词作宾补)这次旅行使他很愉快。
      • He let me in. (地点副词作宾补)他让我进来。
      • Get him out of here. (介词短语,相当于地点副词)把他弄出去!
  • 各种不完全及物动词:接上宾语后意思仍然不完整
    • 让某人做某事,只能接不定时作宾语补语:ask、encourage、tell、push、expect、want、drive/force/oblige/compel、order、cause/urge
      • The postman wanted me to sign for a letter!邮递员要我签收一封挂号信!
      • Last week at a dinner-party, the hostess asked me to sit next to Mrs. Rumbold.在上星期的一次宴会上,女主人安排我坐在兰伯尔德夫人的身旁。
      • Byrd at once ordered his men to throw out two heavy food sacks.伯德马上命令他的助手们把两个沉重的食物袋扔掉。
      • My dentist had told me to rest for a while.我的牙科医生叫我休息一会儿。
      • My old friend Brian urged me to accept a cigarette.我的老朋友布赖恩极力劝我接受一枝香烟。
    • 知觉动词(5看,2听,1感觉):感觉:feel,听:hear, listen to,看:see, observe, watch, look at, notice
      • 表事实:此类动词+宾语+动词原形(补语),译为”……..了。”
        • I saw him dance.我看见他跳舞了。
        • I heard him sing.我听见他唱歌了。
      • 表进行状态:此类动词+宾语+现在分词(补语),译为”…..正在……”
        • Early next morning, she heard planes passing overhead. 第二天一大早,她听到头顶上飞机正在盘旋。
        • The pilot saw one of the men taking photographs.当气球飞临基地上空时,飞行员看见有一个人在拍照。
      • 表被动状态:此类动词+宾语+过去分词(补语),译为”…..被…..”
        • I saw him killed.我看见他被杀了。
    • 认定动词:视…为…;认为…是…:动词 + 宾语 + 介词as + 名词或形容词(补语)
      • regard
        • In spite of this, the Italians regarded him as a sort of hero.尽管如此,意大利人还是把他视作某种英雄。
      • look upon
        • His students all look upon him as a friend.他的学生都把他看成是朋友。
      • think of
        • They think of themselves as the salt of the earth.他们自认为是社会中坚。
      • see
        • I’d like to see Europe as a nuclear-free zone.我希望欧洲成为无核区。
      • view
        • We view every customer as a partner.我们将每一位客户视为合作伙伴。
    • 认定动词:视…为…;认为…是…:动词 + 宾语 + (to be) + 名词或形容词(补语):consider, deem, think, find, believe
      • He is finding his new work far more exciting.他发觉自己的新工作令人兴奋得多。
      • I found his advice really useful.我发现他的建议非常有用。
      • People think this problem determination.人们认为这个问题解决了。
    • 转变动词:使…变成…:change/turn + 宾语 + into + 名词(补语)
      • I need to change my dollars into francs.我需要把美金换成法郎。
      • The experience turned him into a good student.这个经验使他变成了好学生。
    • call/name + 宾语 + 名词(补语)
      • ‘Do you call that a hat?’ I said to my wife.“你把那个叫帽子吗?”我对妻子说。
      • You can name your pet dog Doctor.你可以把你的狗狗取名为博士。
    • help后接不定式(to可省略) 作宾语补语。
      • A short while ago, my sister helped me to carry my old bookcases up the stairs.几分钟前,我妹妹帮我把我的旧书橱抬上了楼。
    • 造句练习
      • 1.店员看见这个衣着很好的妇女正在偷东西。
        • 1.The shop assistant saw the well-dressed woman stealing something.
      • 2.你能帮我洗衣服吗?
        • 2.Can you help me to wash clothes?
      • 3.作为老师,你应该鼓励你的学生努力学习。
        • 3.As a teacher, you should encourage your students to study hard.
      • 4.父母不应该期望他们的孩子做任何事都成功。
        • 4.The parents should not expect their children to succeed in doing everything.
      • 5.你应该命令这个计划在一个月内完成。(order)
        • 5.You should order this project to finished within a month.
      • 6.我发现我们的老师被警察逮捕了。
        • 6.I found our teacher arrested by the police.
      • 7.工人们明天将把墙刷成绿色。
        • 7.The workers will paint the wall green.
      • 8.女主人邀请我们进去。
        • 8.The hostess invited us in.
      • 9.我们认为这个男人处于危险中。
        • 9.We considered the man in danger.
      • 10.大部分人把他当作英雄。
        • 10.Most people regarded him as a hero.
  • 特殊的授予动词
    • 间接宾语与直接宾语位置可以倒置,此时需要加介词to, for, of。
      • 表“给予”的概念,要用to
        • My holidays passed quickly, but I did not send any cards to my friends.假期过得真快,可我还没有给我的朋友们寄过一张明信片。
      • 表“代劳”的概念(buy等) ,要用for
        • I bought a book for him.我为他买了一本书
      • ask要用of
        • I asked a question of him.我问了他一个问题。
    • 下列授予动词与of连用
      • 1.rob 抢夺
        • He robbed me of my money.他抢了我的钱。
        • 注:中式思维容易说成He robbed my money. (X) 这是绝对错误的!
      • 2.deprive 剥夺(权利)
        • This law will deprive us of our most basic rights.这条法律将剥夺我们最基本的权利。
      • 3.cure 治愈
        • The teacher cured him of bad habits.老师纠正了他的坏习惯。
      • 4.relieve 减轻
        • It will relieve her of a tremendous burden. 这将给她解决一个巨大的负担。
      • 5.remind 提醒
        • I continually have to remind him of his responsibilities.我得一再提醒他记住他的责任。
    • 表“提供”概念的授予动词provide, furnish, supply必须与介词with连用。(但双宾语倒置的时候任然用to,for)
      • He provided me with a lot of money.他提供给我很多钱。
      • The present conflict may provide fresh impetus for peace talk.目前的冲突可能会给和谈提供新的推动力。
      • The school doesn’t furnish students with lunch.学校不供给学生午饭。
      • The gas station usually supplies its nearby communities with gas.这个加油站通常为附近的社区提供汽油。
      • We supply power to the three nearby towns.我们对附近的三个城镇提供电力。
    • 造句练习
      • 1.这个著名的歌手给我们演唱了一首流行歌曲。
        • 1.The famous singer sang us a popular song.
      • 2.这座新桥带给当地人极大的方便。
        • 2.The new bridge brings the local people the great convenience.
      • 3.你不能剥夺她的权利。
        • 3.You can’t deprive her of her rights.
      • 4.这张照片使我想起了我们在夏令营度过的日子。
        • 4.The photo reminds me of the days which spent in the summer camp.
  • 第四大句型:主语+不完全及物动词+宾语+宾语补语,变成被动语态时,原句的宾语补语,在被动语态中的名称为“主语补语”
    • My father was shocked. Now we are not allowed to touch it. 我父亲大为吃惊,不许我们再动它。
    • The Games will be held just outside the capital and the whole area will be called ‘Olympic City’. 奥运会就在首都市郊举办,整个地区将被称作奥林匹克城”。
    • The man was ordered to pay 43,545 for the cost of the trip. 此人被责令交付旅费3,500英镑.
  • make, have, let, get 这4个使役动词,只有make可以用于被动语态。这类句型在被动语态句里边,主语补语必须加上to!
    • They made me repeat the story. / I was made to repeat the story.他们让我又把那事讲了一遍。
  • 能用动词原形作宾语补语的不完全(及物)动词有
    • 5看:see, observe, watch, look at, notice
      • I saw him dance. / He was seen to dance. 我看见他跳舞了。
    • 1使:make
    • 2听:hear, listen to
    • 1感:feel
  • 第五大句型变成被动语态时,两个宾语都可以成为被动句的主语。但由于间接宾语是人,通常更常变成主语。
    • I give him a book. = He was given a book by me. = A book was given to him by me.

5.最简单的长句——并列句

简单句、复合句、并列句

  • 简单句:是只有一个主干的句子
  • 复合句:是除主句外还包含一个或一个以上从句的句子
  • 并列句:由并列连词连接两个或两个以上简单句而成的句子。
  • 注意:汉语可以用逗号分隔两个完整的句子,英语绝对不可以!而是必须有连词连接,或者把其中一个句子,化简为分词短语或不定时短语

连接主句和从句的连词有三种

  • 引导词,连接名词性从句
  • 副词连词,连接状语从句
  • 关系词,连接定语从句

单一连接词:and, or, but

  • 连接对等的句子
    • I had just lost $50 and I felt very upset. 我刚刚丢了50英镑,感到非常烦恼。(and连接不用加逗号)
    • The police had a difficult time, but they were most amused. 警察虽然吃了苦头,但他们还是感到很有趣。(but连接要加逗号)
    • 注:or连接句子的时候,通常用于祈使句后面,翻译为“否则”
    • Obey your boss or you will be fired. 服从你的上司,否则你会被解雇。
    • Don’t cheat at exams or others will despise you. 考试不要作弊,否则别人会瞧不起你。
    • Give me liberty or give me death. 不自由,毋宁死。
  • 连接句子中任何对等的成分
    • 连接主语
      • A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me.
      • 一青年男子与一青年女子坐在我的身后。
    • 连接谓语:相当于是连接两个句子,省略了第二个句子的主语
      • I visited museums and sat in public gardens. 我参观了博物馆,还去了公园。
      • I entered the hotel manager’s office and sat down. 我走进饭店经理的办公室,坐了下来
      • 注:连接谓语的时候,只要助动词相同,即可省略助动词
        • After taking off, we were flying low over the city and (were) slowly gaining height, when the plane suddenly turned round and flew back to the airport. 起飞之后,我们在城市上空低低地飞行,然后慢慢爬高。这时飞机突然调转头来,飞回了 机场。(括号里的助动词were可省略)
      • 谓语动词相同的,也可以省略。
        • Mary is very happy but John (is) very miserable. 玛丽很幸福,但是约翰很悲惨。
        • Experience is the father of wisdom, and memory (is) the mother. 经验乃智慧之父,记忆为智慧之母。
        • Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.读书使人渊博,交谈使人机敏,写作使人严谨。(conference和writing后省略了makes)- Francis Bacon(弗朗西斯培根)
    • 连接宾语
      • I looked at the man and the woman angrily. 我回过头去怒视着那一男一女。
      • He asked me for a meal and a glass of beer. 他问我要一顿饭和一杯啤酒。(连接介词for的两个宾语)
    • 连接表语
      • The railway station was big, black and dark. 火车站很大,又黑又暗。
      • The explanation was simple but very unusual. 解释很简单,却异乎寻常
    • 连接宾语补语
      • He saw two thieves rush out of a shop and run towards a waiting car. 他看到有两个小偷从一家商店里冲出来,奔向等在那里的一辆汽车。
    • 连接定语
      • Pupils of the school, old and new, will be sending him a present to mark the occasion.为了纪念这个日子,学校的学生——无论老同学还是新同学——将送他一件礼物。
    • 连接状语
      • We shall all remember Mr. Page for his patience and understanding and for the kindly encouragement.我们不会忘记佩奇先生对我们既有耐心又充满理解,还有亲切鼓励。
    • 注:or连接对等成分的时候,通常翻译为“或者”
      • They will go to the zoo or play volleyball. 他们要去动物园或打排球
      • I want to have a talk with Mr. Jones or Mr. Smith. 我想和琼斯先生或者史密斯先生谈谈。
    • And也可表示“然后”,“但是”,”那么,则”的意思
      • Cease to struggle and you cease to live. 停止奋斗,则终止了生命。
      • Idleness is sweet, and its consequences are cruel. 懒惰是甜蜜的,但其结果是残酷的。
      • I will set my goal and work toward it. 我要确定目标,然后为此努力。

由单一连词衍生的连接词

  • 要么…要么…:either…or…(连接2者以上的结构)
    • In answer to these questions I either nodded or made strange noises. 作为对这些问题的回答,我不是点头,就是发出奇怪的声音。
    • Either Bob or Jim or Sam will be the new vice president of the company. 不是鲍勃就是吉姆或者是山姆会成为这家公司的新副总裁。
  • 既不是…也不是…:neither…nor…,也可用其它否定词代替neither
    • He answered me, but he spoke neither slowly nor clearly. 他回答了,但他讲得既不慢也不清楚。
    • We are worried about Mary. She neither eats nor drinks nor talks. 我们替玛丽担心。她不吃不喝也不说话
    • The story is not interesting nor instructive. 这个故事没有味道,也没有教育意义。
    • I have never spoken nor written to her. 我跟她从来没说过话,也没写过信。
  • 不是…而是…:not…but…
    • I went to the concert not with my brother but with my friend. 我不是和我哥哥去音乐会,而是和我朋友去的。(只能省略动词,不能省略介词)
    • We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard. 我们选择10年内登月以及另外一些事情,不是因为它们容易,而是因为它们困难。(肯尼迪总统在阿波罗登月计划动员会上的讲话)
    • “Listen, my dear, we must hold on to hope,” my father calm but insistently replied.“Not because hope is real, but because we have to live up to nobility.” “听着,亲爱的,我们必须抱有希望,”我爸爸平静但坚定地回答。“这并不是因为希望真的存在,而是因为我们要做高贵的人。” 《The wandering earth》Liu Cixin (刘慈欣《流浪地球》)
  • 不仅…而且…:not only…but(also)…/not only…but…as well
    • He answered all the question not only quickly but (also) accurately. 他回答所有问题时不仅快,而且准确。
    • The Big Ben is not only of immense size, but is extremely accurate as well. 此钟不仅外型巨大,而且走时也非常准确。
    • 英国英语常用not only… but… as well,
    • 美国英语常用not only… but also…(also可省略)
    • I not only spoke English very carefully, but very clearly as well.(英)
    • I not only spoke English very carefully, but (also) very clearly. (美)我的英语讲得不但非常认真,而且咬字也非常清楚。
  • 注:上述并列连词连接的并列名词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数与靠后面的名词一致
    • Either Thomas or I am going to call you tomorrow about the job.不是托马斯就是我明天会打电话给你谈工作的事。
  • …和…两者都:both…and…
    • To go far, you need both a dream and a positive attitude.要成功,你需要梦想和积极的态度。
    • 注:本并列连接的并列名词作主语时,谓语动词一律用复数
    • Both my mother and my sister work at the grocery store. 我妈妈和我姐姐都在这个杂货店工作。
  • 既是…又是…:… as well as …
    • Nursing is a vocation as well as a profession. 护理工作既是职业又是救死扶伤的责任。
    • He shared in my sorrows as well as in my joys. 他分担我的快乐也分享我的悲伤。
    • 注:…as well as…的意思和not only…but (also)…相近,但是前者强调前面的名词,谓语动词与强调的名词一致。
      • The bedrooms, as well as the kitchen, need to be repaired if we rent the house. 如果我们要租这个房子,卧室和厨房都需要维修。
  • 是…而不是…:…rather than…
    • These are political rather than social matters.这是政治问题而不是社会问题。

造句练习

  • 1.中国和印度的人口都超过了10亿。
    • 1.Both China and India have a population of over one billion.
  • 2.我们应该要么把电脑送修要么买台新的。
    • 2.We should either get the computer fixed or buy a new one.
  • 3.冰箱里既没有牛奶也没有蔬菜。
    • 3.Neither milk nor vegetables is in the refrigerator.
  • 4.无论下雪、下雨或者高温天气都不能阻止这些邮递员完成他们的投递工作。
    • 4.Neither snow nor rain nor hot weather prevents these postmen from completing their deliveries.
  • 5.不是公司董事长而是我将出席明天早上的商务会议。
    • 5.Not the company’s president but I am going to the business meeting tomorrow morning.
  • 6.我们都喜欢张小姐,不是因为她是我们老师,而是因为她是美女。
    • 6.We all like Miss Zhang not because she is our teacher but because she is very beautiful.
  • 7.恶心和呕吐都是食物中毒的症状。
    • 7.Both nausea and vomiting are signs of food poisoning.
  • 8.他不但英语说得非常好,而且还会说法语。
    • 8.He can not only speak English very well but also French.
  • 9.这名女子听到这个消息的时候是高兴而不是悲伤。
    • 9.The woman was happy rather than sad when she heard the news

6.把句子套进另一个句子里,变身“大名词”

  • 从句是什么
    • 就是一个句子在另外一个句子里边做句子成分
  • 名词从句
    • 一个句子,在另外一个句子里边当名词使用
    • 4种用法:主语、宾语、同位语、表语
    • 名词从句需要有引导词:That he doesn’t like to study makes me angry.
  • that从句:任何一个陈述句,前面加上引导词that,构成that从句。(作宾语/表语时,that可省略)
    • That everyone may receive a moderate education is an object of vital importance. 每个人能够接受适当的教育似乎是一个至关重要的目标。(主语从句)
    • Many people pretend that they understand modern art. 有很多人装成很懂现代艺术的样子。(宾语从句)
    • The most surprising thing about it, however, is that it can land anywhere: on snow, water, or even on a ploughed field. 然而,最令人惊奇的是它能够在任何地方降落:雪地,水面,甚至刚耕过的田里。(表语从句)
    • No one could account for the fact that one of the boxes was extremely heavy.其中有只箱子特别重,可谁也弄不清是怎么回事。(同位语从句)
  • that从句作主语时,为了使主干更紧凑,通常可用it作行驶时主语,而将真正的主语后置
    • It was obvious that he was very embarrassed. 显然他感到很尴尬。
    • It is a curious coincidence that Mr. Page will have been teaching for a total of forty years. 佩奇先生执教满总共40年,这真是奇妙的巧合。
  • consider, deem, think, find, believe五个动词是宾补动词,构成第四大句型,表示“认为…是…”
    • 我认为健康是非常重要的
    • I think health very important.其中health是宾语,important是补语
    • 我认为我们每天说英语是重要的
    • I think that we should speak English important. X
    • I think it important that we should speak English.√
    • I think it necessary that you do it at once.我认为你必须立刻做那件事。
    • We find it necessary that we practice spoken English every day. 我们发现每天练习英语口语很有必要。
  • whether/if从句:任何一个一般疑问句,前面加上引导词whether或if,构成whether从句,但主语与be动词或助动词的位置还原。如果助动词为do, does, did, 还原后将do, does, did去掉,后面的动词根据人称和时态变化
    • Whether they would support us was a problem. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。(主语从句)
    • He asked if Mr Gilbert’s operation had been successful and the doctor told him that it had been. 他问吉尔伯特先生的手术中否成功,医生告诉他手术很成功。(宾语从句)
    • On the way home, he asked Jenny if she had enjoyed the speech. 在回家的路上,他问珍妮是否喜欢他的祝词。(宾语从句, 直接宾语)
  • 介词后及or not结构中,通常用whether
    • My sister is only seven, but she always tells me whether my pictures are good or not. 我的妹妹只有7岁,但她总能说出我的画是好还是坏。
    • I worry about whether I hurt his feeling. 我担心是否伤害了他的感情
  • 疑问词从句:构成方法与whether从句一样,只是将whether换成疑问词而已,句子必须改为陈述句语序
    • He then asked when Mr Gilbert would be allowed to go home and the doctor told him that he would have to stay in hospital for another two weeks.然后他又问吉尔伯特先生什么时候可以回家,医生说他在医院还必须再住上两个星期。(宾语从句,其中when作从句中的状语)
    • The doctors have not yes decided how the woman died. 医生们至今还未确定这位妇女的死因。
    • I have no idea what has happened to him. 我不知道他发生了什么事?
  • 造句练习
    • 1.谁将负责这项工程还没有(被)决定。(be in charge of)
      • 1.Who will be in charge of the project hasn’t been decided yet.
    • 2.他要来参加这个会议(已经)使得我们每个人激动了。
      • 2.That he will come to the conference has excited every one of us.
    • 3.他告诉我他们会帮助我们完成整个工作的。
      • 3.He told me that they would help us finish the whole work.
    • 4.我不知道(wonder)您是否能小声点。
      • 4.I wonder whether/if you would mind making less noise.
    • 5.我认为每天多喝水是有必要的。
      • 5.I think it necessary that we (should) take plenty of water every day.
    • 6.我不知道(have no idea)他们什么时候回来定居。
      • 6.I have no idea when they will be back and settle down.
    • 7.我(已经)发现所有的票都(已经)卖光了。
      • 7.I have found that all the tickets had been sold out.
    • 8.问题是这部电视剧是否值得一看。
      • 8.The question is whether the TV play is worth watching.