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恶魔奶爸语法13-15课

13.如何用好比较结构

比较句,其实并不是状语从句,而是一种特殊的并列句

  • Mary is beautiful and Lucy is beautiful too.
  • 这是一个并列句,两句话的系表部分都是”is beautiful”
  • 那么,如果你要表达:“Mary和Lucy一样漂亮”,就称为原级比较:
  • Mary is as beautiful as Lucy (is beautiful).
  • 前面一个as是副词,后面一个as才是连词,括号里边的部分和前面的分句相同,故通常省略。
  • 如果你要表达:“Mary比Lucy漂亮”, 就称为一般比较:
  • Mary is more beautiful than Lucy.

原级比较:as(副词)+形容词或副词的原级…as (连词) …

  • 概述
    • 出现在“as…as…”(和…一样)的句子中,第一个as为副词,第二个as为副词连词,引导比较状语从句
    • 此时,整个比较结构,可以作表语,定语(形容词比较),也可以作状语(副词比较)
    • 在否定句中,也可用“not so…as…”
      • He is handsome.
      • John is handsome.
      • 可合并为:He is as handsome as John is handsome
      • 为了避免重复,第二个as后面相同的部分(动词及动词以后的词)均可省略。如果后面的主语是代词时,书面语用主格,但是口语可使用宾格。
      • 故这句话可改为:
      • He is as handsome as John. 他和约翰一样帅!
    • 在书面语中,尤其是主语为代词时,为了避免选择主格/宾格的麻烦,最好不要省略比较连词后面的动词(口语中可省略)
    • He is as handsome as John is
    • He is as handsome as you are
    • He is as handsome as I am
  • 形容词原级比较
    • Pigs are as clever as monkeys and dolphins. (表语比较) 猪和猴子以及海豚一样聪明。
    • People are not so honest as they once were. (表语比较) 人们不再像以前那样诚实了。
    • 注:形容词后可接名词(定语比较)
      • Jane is as a beautiful girl as Mary. 简和玛丽一样是个漂亮女孩。
  • 副词原级比较
    • David works as hard as Bill. 大卫和比尔一样努力。
    • Mary reads as much as Tony watches television. 玛丽看书的时间和托尼看电视的时间一样多。
    • I can’t keep a secret as long as he/him. 我不能像他一样保守那么久的秘密
  • 尽量…:as + adj./adv. + as possible/one can
    • You should be as careful as you can when driving. = You should be as careful as possible when driving. 你开车要尽量小心。
    • The woman kept as near as she could to the children and even tried to get into the case herself, but it was too small. 这位妇女尽可能地靠近孩子,甚至自己也想钻进箱子里去,只是箱子太小了。
  • 极为…:be as + adj. + as can be
    • That girl is as beautiful as can be. 那个女孩子美丽极了。
  • 和往常一样…:as + adj./adv. + as ever + as one used to be
    • I rang the bell and was not surprised to see that Herbert was still as fat as ever. 我按响了门铃,当看到休仍和往常一样胖时,我并不感到惊奇。
    • Jack is working as hard as ever. 杰克和往常一样努力工作。
    • Jay Chou is not so popular as he used to be. 周杰伦没有以前那么红了。
  • 多达…:as many as + 数字 + 复合名词
    • As many as 20,000 people were killed or missing in a massive tsunami in Japan on March 11, 2011. 多达2万人在2011年3月11日的日本大海啸中丧生和失踪。
    • 注:修饰金额时,一律用as much as
    • I have as much as 100 dollars with me. 我身上多达100美元。
    • 类似搭配有:as long as长达,as wide as宽达,as high as高达
  • 造句练习
    • 1.要想把英文学好,你应该尽量多看英文文章。
      • 1.To learn English well, you should read as many English articles as possible.
    • 2.我每次见到大卫,他都像蜜蜂一样忙着工作。
      • 2.Whenever I see David, he is as busy working as a bee.
    • 3.彼得或许没有玛丽那么聪明,但是他勤奋(hardworking)极了。
      • 3.Peter may be not so/as clever as Mary, but he is as hardworking as can be.
    • 4.这名歌手不像以前那么受欢迎了。
      • 4.The singer is not so/as popular as he used to be.
    • 5.估计多达10万名考生将参加新托福考试。
      • 5.It is estimated that as many as one hundred thousand candidates will take the IBT.
    • 6.我学英文长达十年之久。
      • 6.I’ve been learning English as long as ten years.

比较级比较(一般):形容词或副词的比较级…than (连词)…

  • 概述
    • 情况一
      • 1.A is beautiful.
      • 2.B is beautiful.
      • 如果要表达“A比B更漂亮”,就需要将上面两个句子合并:
      • A is more beautiful than B is beautiful.
      • A is more beautiful than B is.
      • A is more beautiful than B.
      • 那么问题来了,than后面的句子,动词is省略好还是不省略好呢?
      • 很简单,than后 面的句子中的动词和前面完全一致, 那就可以省略,但是如果不一致,比如is变成了am, are, was, were等形式,那就不能省略。如果是一般动词,应以do, does, did代替)。
      • Mary is more beautiful than Jane.
      • John is more handsome than I am.
    • 情况二
      • 1.I like her.
      • 2.You like her.
      • 如果要表达“我比你更喜欢她”,那么两句合并:
      • I like her more than you like her.
      • 此时,如果省略动词: I like her more than you. (意思是我喜欢她胜过喜欢你)
      • 那么,就出现歧义了,到底是“我比你更喜欢她”还是“我更喜欢她而不喜欢你呢?因为“you”既可能是主格也可能是宾格。事实上,英文中所有的实义名词都是“主格”与“宾格”相同的。
      • 所以,上面的句子应该写成: I like her more than you do. (我比你更喜欢她)
  • 形容词一般比较
    • Bill Frith’s garden is larger than Joe's. 比尔.弗里斯的花园比乔的花园大。
    • Wisdom is more precious than wealth. 智慧比财富更宝贵。
    • Athlete need to consume much more food than the average person. 运动员比一般人需要消耗更多的食物。
    • Taking a beautiful fall is better than wondering aimlessly. 华丽的跌倒,胜过无谓的徘徊。
    • Indifference and neglect often do much more damage than outstraight dislike. 冷漠和忽视经常比直接的憎恨伤害更大。(J.K .Rowling名言)
  • 副词一般比较
    • Bill works harder than Joe and grows more flowers and vegetables, but Joe’s garden is more interesting. 他比乔也更为勤奋,种植的花卉和蔬菜也更多,但乔的花园更富有情趣。
    • Actions speak louder than words. 行动胜于空谈。
    • 比较级可以被副词much, even, still, far, a lot修饰,表示”…得多”,或者a bit, a little修饰,表示“…一点点”。
    • 比较级前面加上all the,表示“更加…”,是一种强调,相当于even, much
      • The food was all the more delicious because we were hungry. = The food was even/much more delicious because we were hungry. 因为我们饿了,食物就更加美味可口。

准关系代词as, than, but引导的定语从句

  • 概述
    • 对比两个句子:
    • 1.我们了解到他通过了考试。
    • 2.正如我们了解到的那样,他通过了考试。
    • 我们会发现,上面两句话其实是同一个意思。英语中,也有和上面完全对应的说法:
    • 1.We learned that he passed the exam.
    • 2.As we learned, he passed the exam.
  • as引导的定语从句
    • 概述
      • 传统语法认为:as通常 用于引导非限定性定语从句,此时as代替整个主句,相当于which。这种说法显然比较牵强附会,造成很多英语学习者理解困难。其实这种句型同样属于比较状语从句,只不过as后面省略了复合关系代词what,只要知道了这点,马上就能理解了。
      • As (what / the thing that) I soon learnt, he was English himself! 我很快了解到,他自己就是个英国人!
      • 主动式:As I soon learnt, he was English himself.
      • 被动式:As was soon learnt (by me), he was English himself.
      • 注意,本从句的谓语动词必须是及物动词!!而且主句必须是这个及物动词逻辑上的宾语
      • 上一句话,learn是及物动词,后面的主句he was English himself. 刚好就是learn的逻辑宾语
    • 例句
      • But as they soon discovered, disguises can sometimes be too perfect. 但他们很快就发觉,化装的效果有时过分完美了。
      • Anyway, as Brian pointed out, it is the easiest thing in the world to give up smoking. 不管怎么说,正如布赖恩指出的那样,戒烟是世界上最容易的事情。
      • As is known to us all, the whale is not fish but mammal. 就像我们都知道的一样,鲸不是鱼类而是哺乳动物。
      • She was married again, as was expected.她又结婚了,正如人们预料的一样。
      • As is reported, it is 100 years since Tsing University was founded. 正如报道的那样,清华大学建校已经有100年历史了。
    • 造句练习
      • 1.正如她工作表现出的一样,她很细心。
        • 1.She is very careful, as her work shows.
      • 2.就像我们猜测的一样,这个调皮的学生没有通过考试。
        • 2.As we guessed, the naughty student didn’t pass the exam.
      • 3.正如常常被指出的,知识是一把双刃剑,可以同等地用于造福和作恶。
        • 3.As is so often pointed out, knowledge is a two-edged weapon which can be used equally for good or evil.
  • that引导的定语从句
    • 概述
      • 先看这句话:
      • He smoked more cigarettes than were normally available. 他吸的香烟比他弄到的要多。
      • 如果按照传统语法把than看成关系代词,是很难理解的。但是,只要我们按照下面的方式理解,就是一目了然了:
      • He smoked more cigarettes than (what) were normally available.
      • 这里,than后面省略 了复合关系代词what,这样理解,立刻就能符合我们的正常思维方式。
    • 例句
      • Don’t drink more wine than is good for health. 不要过量饮酒,适量饮酒有益于健康。
      • I have more money than he needs. 我的钱比他需要的多。
      • He is a good student than you are. 他是个好学生,比你还好。
      • The manufacturers had to pay more money than they had anticipated, for they bought the biscuit from the student for $24,000. 饼干公司不得不付出比他们预计多得多的钱,因为为买下那学生烘制的饼干他们支付了24,000美元。
      • To compensate for his unpleasant experiences in hospital, the man drank a little more than was good for him. 为了补偿住院这一段不愉快的经历,那人喝得稍许多了一点。
      • It seems that man was making a real effort to understand the seasons 20,000 years earlier than has been supposed. 看来人类早就致力于探索四季变迁了,比人们想象的要早20,000年。
    • 造句练习
      • 1.人们现在准备饭菜比以前容易多了。
        • 1.People today can prepare their meal much easier than has ever been before.
      • 2.父母最好别给孩子太多的钱,够用就行了。
        • 2.Parents had better not give kids more money than is needed.
      • 3.所以今天想在某一领域成为专业人士要比以前花费更长的时间。
        • 3.Therefore, to be a professional in a certain field today takes much longer time than has ever been before.
  • but引导的定语从句
    • but作为准关系代词引导定语从句,是一种少见的用法,且只引导限定性定语从句。而且要特别注意,but本身具有否定意义,故引导的定语从句具有否定含义。另外,but修饰的先行词,通常会被否定词修饰。且这个结构通常只能和there be句型搭配
      • There is no man but errs.人必犯错。(but作主语,相当于There is no man who doesn’t err.)
      • There is nothing but he knows.没有他不知道的事情。(but作宾语,相当于There is nothing which he doesn’t know.)
    • 造句练习
      • 1.在场的人没人不知道这个故事
        • 1.There was no one present but knew the story already .
      • 2.没有不爱自己孩子的母亲
          1. There is no mother but loves her children.

14.如何写好倒装句和强调句

概述

  • 所谓倒装句,就是改变句子主干的正常顺序,达到强调其中一部分内容的目的

否定倒装句

  • 概述
    • 倒装的方法其实是:把否定副词后面的句子,变成一般疑问句语序
    • 句中有be动词或者助动词的时候,将其与主语倒装
    • 句中只有一般动词的时候,根据人称和时态在主语前加上do, does, did
  • 否定性质的副词
    • never(从不)
      • Never is he happy. 他从不快乐。(原句是:He is never happy)
    • hardly/scarcely(几乎不)
      • Hardly is he ever quiet. 他几乎从未安静过。(原句是: He is hardly ever quiet.)
    • rarely/seldom(很少)
      • Rarely does modern sculpture surprise us any more. 现代雕塑再也不使我们感到惊讶了。(原句是:Modern sculpture rarely surprise us any more.)
    • little/none(一点也不)
    • nowhere(哪里都不)
  • 否定性质的副词短语
    • 绝不:by no means, in no way, on no account, under no circumstances, in no situation
      • By no means are you the person we need. 你绝非我们需要的人。(原句: You are by no means the person we need. )
      • In no way am I responsible for what has happened. 我决不对发生的事情负责。(原句是: I am in no way responsible for what has happened. )
    • not until/only + 副词性质的短语或从句:直到…/就在…
      • Not until John arrived did I leave.直到约翰到了之后我才离开。(原句: I did not leave until John arrived. )
      • Only in a sparsely-populated rural community is it possible to disregard it. 只有在人口稀少的农村,才可以忽视它。(原句: It is possible to disregard it only in a sparsely-populated rural community. )
    • 并列句里面的not only…but(also/…as well)(不仅…而且…)句型,在连接两个完整的句子时,要使用倒装。注:第二个句子不倒装,但also要省略
      • Not only was the meal well below the usual standard, but Bessie seemed unable to walk steadily.不仅饭菜远不如平时做得好,而且贝西走起路来似乎东倒西歪。(原句是:The meal was not only well below the …..)
      • Not only had the poor man been arrested, but he had been sent to prison as well. 那个可怜的记者不仅被捕了,而且还被送进了监狱。(原句是:The poor man had not only been arrested, ….)
  • 造句练习:(分别用正常语序和倒装)
    • 1.我很少晚上11点以后看电视。
      • 1.I seldom watch TV after 11:00 p. m.
      • Seldom do I watch TV after 11:00 p. m.
    • 2.我以前从没有想过玛丽会离开她的丈夫。
      • 2.I would never have guessed that Mary would leave her husband.
      • Never would I have guessed that Mary would leave her husband.
      1. 你绝不会(by no means)找不到(have trouble finding)这座大楼的,因为它是全市最高的。
        • 3.You should by no means have trouble finding the building because it is the tallest in the city.
        • By no means should you have trouble finding the building because it is the tallest in the city.
    • 4.只有在较浅的河段你才能涉水渡河。
      • 4.You can walk across the river only in the shallow part.
      • Only in the shallow part can you walk across the river.
    • 5.只有在他跟我说明问题时,我才了解我哪里错了。
      • 5.I can understand what I am doing wrong only when he explains the problems to me.
      • Only when he explains the problems to me can I understand what I am doing wrong.
    • 6.直到我抵达机场,才想起把护照忘在家里了。
      • 6.I did not remember that I had left my passport at home until I arrived at the airport.
      • Not until I arrived at the airport did I remember that I had left my passport at home.

so/such倒装句

  • 形容词一般比较
    • He is so helpful that we all like him. = So helpful is he that we all like him.他那么乐于助人,因此我们都很喜欢她。
    • He has done so well that he deserves our respect. = So well has he done that he deserves our respect.他做得那么好,所以值得我们尊敬。
    • Mrs. Sterling got so angry that she ran after them. = So angry did Mrs. Sterling get that she ran after them.斯特林夫人非常气愤,向着他们追了过去。
    • Peter is such an outstanding student that all the teachers that have taught him like him very much. = Such an outstanding student is Peter that all the teachers that have taught him like him very much.彼得是这么杰出的学生,以至于所有教过他的老师都非常喜欢她。
  • so作为副词单独使用可表示“也”的意思,前面有连词and,后面的句子倒装
    • I’m afraid of darkness, and my sister is, too. = I’m afraid of darkness, and so is my sister.我怕黑,我妹妹也是。
  • 造句练习:(分别用正常语序和倒装)
    • 1.彼得夫妇有这么好的女儿,使得我们都很羡慕他们。
      • 1.Mr. and Mrs.Peter have such a good daughter that I envy them.
      • Such a good son do Mr. and Mrs. Peter have that I envy them.
    • 2.这位老太太的生活如此悲惨,以至于我们都很同情(sympathize with)她。
      • 2.The old lady’ s life is so miserable that we all sympathize with him.
      • So miserable is the old lady S life that we all sympathize with him.
    • 3.很多年轻人喜欢周杰伦,我也是。
      • 3.Many young people like Jay Chou, and I do, too.
      • Many young people like Jay Chou, and so do I.
    • 4.奥巴马总统明天会来看我们,他老婆也会来。
      • 4.President Obama will be coming to see us tomorrow, and his wife will, too.
      • President Obama will be coming to see us tomorrow, and so will his wife.

nor / and neither倒装句

  • nor和neither都表示“也不”,但nor是连词,而neither是副词,所以前面通常有连词and。(美语中有时也可省略)
    • My girlfriend doesn’t like singing, and I don’t, either.
    • = My girlfriend doesn’t like singing, nor do I.
    • = My girlfriend doesn’t like singing, and neither do I.
  • nor作为副词,还可以单独使用,表示“并非”
    • Nor is it only the ignorant and ill-educated person who was such faith in the bottle of medicine.并不只是那些无知和没受过良好教育的人才迷信药瓶子
    • Nor is the city without its moments of beauty.城市也并非没有良辰美景
  • 造句练习:(分别用正常语序和倒装)
    • 1.我将不会出席明天的会议,我们老板也不会。
      • 1.I will not attend the meeting tomorrow, and our boss will not, either.
      • I wiII not attend the meet ing tomorrow, and neither will our boss .
      • I will not attend the meeting tomorrow, nor will our boss.
    • 2.这条消息也不是特别地令人吃惊。
      • 2.The news is not particularly surprising.
      • Nor is the news particularly surprising.

副词倒装句

  • 表示地点、方向、次序的副词放在句首,主语是名词,谓语是系动词或不及物动词的时候,必须倒装(主语是代词不倒装)
    • Up came the sun as we climbed to the mountain top. 太阳在我们爬到山顶时升起。(完全倒装)
    • On the desk is a book. 桌上有本书(完全倒装)
    • Among them will be debbie's mother, who swam the Channel herself when she was a girl. 他们当中还会有黛比的母亲,她本人还是个姑娘时,也曾横渡过英吉利海峡! (本句中 的mother被定语从句修饰,故倒装以后和紧邻定语从句,使句子主干更突出)
    • Next came a horse. 随后来了一匹马。
    • There you have it that’s the news for today.(不倒装)
    • On the hill I saw Lulu.(不倒装)
  • There be句型,其实是一种特殊的地点副词倒装句,翻译为“有…”,其本质是强调某种东西“存在”,be这时是一个不及物动词,相当于exist。而动词have的本质是强调“拥有”
    • There is only one happiness in this life, to love and to be loved.生命中只有一种情况叫幸福——爱和被爱。 (法国作家 乔治桑名言)
    • There will be a large basketball match in our school next week.我们学校下周将有一场大型篮球比赛。
    • There have been bicycles stolen from the parking lot recently. 最近停车场一直有自行车遭窃。
    • Many people wonder if there might be life in other galaxies.很多人想知道其它星系是否可能有生命存在。
  • 某些语法书说,have的主语是人,There be的主语是物*。这种说法显然是错误的。大家一定要记住:have是从属关系,there be仅仅强调某种东西“存在”,所以there be句型的主语一定是实体名词,而不能用抽象名词比如meeting, conversation等
    • The house has many large rooms and there is a lovely garden.这栋房子里有许多房间,还有一个漂亮的花园。(本句里rooms属于house的组成部分,而garden属于house外的东西,故前面用has,后面用there is)

强调

  • 普通强调句
    • 为了强调句中的某个成分,可以用下面两种句型
    • It is/was + 名词/代词 + who/whom/which引导的定语从句
    • It is/was + 副词/介词短语/状语从句 + that引导的名词从句
      • Mary is visiting us tomorrow.玛丽明天来看我们。
      • => It is Mary who is visiting us tomorrow.明天来看我们的是玛丽。
      • I bought this watch yesterday.我昨天买了这块手表。
      • => It is this watch which I bought yesterday.我昨天买的就是这块手表。
      • I quit my job because I didn’t like the general manager.我辞职是因为我不喜欢总经理。
      • => It was because I didn’t like the general manager that I quit my job.我是因为不喜欢总经理才辞职的。
      • The tree was planted near a church fifty years ago, but it has gained an evil reputation only in recent years.该树是50年前栽在教堂附近的,但近几年得到了一个坏名声。
      • => The tree was planted near a church fifty years ago, but it is only in recent years that it has gained an evil reputation. 该树是50年前栽在教堂附近的,但只是近几年才得到了一个坏名声。
  • 注:强调句中的It is /was…who/whom/which/that在句子中不作任何成分,这是与it作形式主语的句型的区别
  • 一般疑问句的强调:把is/was提到it前面
  • 特殊疑问句的强调:疑问句+一般疑问句的强调句
    • Was it yesterday that he met president Obama?他是昨天遇到奥巴马总统的吗?
    • What is it that makes a person so special?使一个人与众不同的究竟是什么呢?
  • 造句练习
    • 1.我是在公园里遇到玛丽的。
      • 1.It was in the park that I ran into Mary.
    • 2.我是为了我的健康的缘故放弃这份待遇优厚的工作的。
      • 2.It was for the sake of my health thatI gave up this well-paying job.
    • 3.是直到昨天你才完成这个工作的吗?
      • 3.Was it until yesterday that you finished the work?
    • 4.究竟是哪个国家赢得了2010年世界杯呢?
      • 4.Which country was it that won the World Cup in 2010?

15.介词省略句型

引入

  • 先看几个汉语句子
    • 1、我确信他无法通过考试。
    • 2、我很高兴你来参加我们的宴会。
    • 3、我恐怕他不会来了。
    • 4、我很抱歉这么晚打扰你。
  • 在汉语中是表示人的心理活动,应该是谓语动词,后面的句子是宾语
  • 但是在英语中,并没有对应心理活动的动词,而是对应的表示心理活动的形容词: sure, glad, afraid, or….等等,我们将其称之为“主观形容词”
  • 所以,需要一个固定搭配:be+主观形容词+ about/ of

后接名词

  • I am terribly sorry about that.听说这事我很难过。

后接动名词短语

  • She is tired of doing her homework.她对写作业感到很厌倦.
  • John has been aware of having done something wrong.约翰已意识到自己做错了事

后接名词从句

  • 只有whether从句和疑问句从句,才能直接作介词的宾语
    • I am worried about whether he can do it. 我很担心他是否能做这件事。
    • I’m curious about how he'll cope with the problem. 我很好奇他将如何应付这个问题。
  • 介词后如果要用that从句,那么此时要省略介词about/of,其实这样的结构,就是去掉了介词about或of的宾语从句
    • I am worried about that he plays around all day. (X)这句话应该为:I am worried that he plays around all day.
    • Sam was sure that the wallet must have been found by one of the villagers, but it was not returned to him. 萨姆确信那钱包一定是被某个村民捡到了,可是却不见有人来送还给他。
    • They were also quite sure that a cigarette end did not start the fire. 他们还十分肯定火灾也不是由烟头引起的。
    • My wife was delighted that things had returned to normal once more. 一切又都恢复了正常,为此我妻子十分高兴。
    • I’m afraid that I can't help you this time. 恐怕这次我不能帮你了。
  • 此时还可用介词+ the fact + that从句,此时that从句为同位语从句。或将that从句化简为动名词短语
    • 如表达:
    • 我确定这支队赢了这场比赛。I am sure of that the team has won the game. (X)
    • 应改为:
    • I am sure of the fact that the team has won the game.
    • I am sure of the team's winning the game.

后接不定式

  • After his attempt, Campbell was disappointed to learn that his average speed had been 299 miles per hour. 比赛结束后,坎贝尔非常失望地得知他的平均时速是299英里。
  • I was excited to receive a letter from my girlfriend in Australia. 我很兴奋,因为我收到澳洲的女朋友给我的信。
  • 以上的例句中,不定式的逻辑主语都是句子的主语

5个特殊形容词

  • easy/difficult/hard/possible/impossible,表示:做某事容易/很难/可能/不可能,其后的不定式,形式是主动的,但是意思是被动的
    • He is easy to please.他很容易被取悦。
    • He is difficult to fool.他不容易受骗。
    • This book is hard to understand.这本书很难被理解。(绝对不能说: This book is hard to be understood.(X)