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恶魔奶爸语法10-12课

10.如何构建长难句的主语和宾语

动名词短语是什么

  • 动名词短语相当于名称从句里边的that从句的化简。任何一个that从句,都可以用动名词短语代替。动名词具有名词的性质。所以,名词能作什么,动名词就能作什么
  • Many people pretend that they understand modern art. = Many people pretend understanding modern art.

动名词作主语

  • 举例
    • Working 12 hours a day exhausts me completely. 每天工作12小时让我筋疲力尽。(动名词具有名词的特征,在没有特指是谁发出这个动作的情况下,可以不考虑其逻辑主语,因为在语境中一眼就能看出是谁发出的动作,比如本句话,主语working 12 hours a day当然是句中的“我”发出的动作)。本句如果改成主语从句,那就是: That I work 12 hours a day exhausts me completely. 但是这里用主语从句,远远不如用动名词短语作主语简洁明了。
    • Playing football is my favorite sport.踢足球是我最喜欢的运动。
  • 动名词作主语时,和名词从句一样,也可用形式主语It取代,然后将动名词放在句子主干之后(尤其是动名词比较长时)
    • It was no use pretending that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. 若再装作没看见他已是没有用了,我只好向他招手。
  • 注:动名词短语作主语时,一律视为第三人称单数!但and连接的两个动名词短语作主语时,视为复数。
    • Singing with you guys is a lot of fun. 和你们一伙人唱歌很有趣。
    • Learning English and listening to music are my hobbies. 学英语和唱歌时我的爱好。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.慢跑是保持健康的好方法。
      • 1.Jogging is a good way to stay health/fit.
    • 2.与你共事一直以来都是愉快的经历。(用完成进行态)
      • 2.Working with you has been a pleasant experience. / It has been a pleasant experience to work with you.
    • 3.说是一回事,做又是另一回事。
      • 3.Saying is one thing; doing is another.
    • 4.出国旅游有助于增长你的见识。
      • 4.Travelling abroad helps broaden your horizons. / lt helps to broaden your horizons to travelling abroad.
    • 5.做家务和照顾我们的小孩是我老婆每天要做的事。
      • 5.Doing the housework and taking care of our children are what my wife does every day.
    • 6.学而不思则罔,思而不学则殆。
      • 6.Learning without thinking is useless; thinking without learning is dangerous.
    • 7.相信自己是成功的秘诀!
      • 7.Believing in yourself is the secret of success.
    • 8.拥有知己本身就是一种幸福。
      • 8.Having intimate friends is happiness in itself.
    • 9.取胜并不重要,但努力去赢得胜利却是重要的。
      • 9.Winning is not everything, but trying to win is everything.
    • 10.拥有目标是一种幸福的状态。
      • 10.Having a goal is a state of happiness.
    • 11.牛奶已撒,哭也没用。
      • 11.It is no use crying over spilt milk.
    • 12.光学习不实践是没用的。
      • 12.lt is no use learning without practice.
    • 13.从事自己喜欢的事情没用,你必须喜欢自己从事的事情。
      • 13.lt is no use doing what you like; you have got to like what you do.

动名词作宾语

  • 作及物动词的宾语
    • I love traveling in the country, but I don’t like losing my way. 我喜欢在乡间旅行,但却不愿意迷路。翻译成宾语从句是I love that I travel in the country….
    • Losers avoid becoming self-responsible. 失败者逃避为自己负责。
  • 作介词的宾语
    • My friends kept on offering me cigarettes and cigars. 我的朋友们不断地向我递香烟和雪茄。(on和后面的动名词短语一起,作kept的宾语)
    • Some children can cover the whole length of the pool without coming up for breath even once. 有些孩子能够跑完游泳池的全长而不用露出水面换气。
  • 有些动词只能跟动名词而不能跟不定式作宾语
    • 懂得欣赏,克制想象:understand, appreciate(也可作”感激“之意), deny(也可作否认,拒绝), imagine
    • 喜欢实践,逃避抵抗:enjoy, practice, avoid, escape
    • 介意打扰,讨厌原谅:mind, excuse, dislike/hate, pardon
    • 支持建议,推迟考虑:favor(也可作赞成,宠爱), suggest, delay/postpone, consider
    • 错过盼望,完成冒险:miss, look forward to, finish, risk
  • 含有介词to的介词短语,也是动名词作宾语
    • look forward to: 期待
    • object to: 反对
    • be/get used to: 习惯于,注意和used to不一样,I used to love movie.我曾经很喜欢电影。跟I am used to playing basketball.我习惯了打篮球。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.大多数小朋友喜欢看卡通。
      • 1.Most children enjoy watching cartoons.
    • 2.很多大学毕业生正考虑在寻找工作前先去度个假。
      • 2.A lot of college graduates are considering taking a vacation before their job hunting.
    • 3.我每晚睡前都练习弹钢琴一个小时 。
      • 3.I practice playing the piano for an hour before I go to bed every night.
    • 4.你能想象被困在交通阻塞中超过3小时吗?
      • 4.Can you imagine being caught in traffic jam for over three hours?
    • 5.我盼望不久再见到您。再见。
      • 5.I look forward to seeing you again soon. Goodbye.

动名词做表语

  • The subject of life is making choices. 人生的课题就是做选择。
  • Courage is doing what you’ re afraid to do. 勇气就是去做自己害怕做的事情。

动名词做同位语(较少见)

  • Many people admire his special ability, learning three languages at the same time.很多人都美慕他的特殊能力:同时学习3种语言。
  • My hobby swimming dates from my childhood.我的业余爱好游泳源于我的童年。

动名词短语的逻辑主语——所有格+动名词

  • 概述
    • I remember that he promised to help these poor students.
    • 本句如果改成: I remember promising to help these poor students. 那就是一个错句子。因为promising这个动名词,在这样的语境中,会被默认为是主语“我”发出的动作。但是显然和句意不符合。
    • 这时候,我们就要给动名词加上逻辑主语,原则上,如果主语是代词,通常用所有格,但是如果主语是名词,则用所有格和普通格都正确。
  • 注:美国英语中,可以使用主格(动名词作主语),或宾格(动名词作宾语)代替所有格
    • His not finishing the work disappointed me. 他未能准时完成工作让我失望
    • Would you mind my coming with you? 我跟你一道去行吗?
    • Excuse my interrupting you. 请原谅我打断了您。
    • 上述3个例句可改为:
    • He not finishing the work disappointed me.
    • Would you mind me coming with you?
    • Excuse me interrupting you.
  • 下列情况即使在正式文体中,动名词的逻辑主语也习惯使用普通格:
    • 1.逻辑主语为名词指物
      • The children are looking forward to spring coming.
    • 2.逻辑主语为多个名词
      • Do you remember Mary and her mother coming to see us last June?
    • 3.逻辑主语为以”s”结尾的名词
      • It’s a disaster the bosses shutting all those factories.
    • 4.逻辑主语与动名词分离
      • I remember mother once telling us a story about the fox.
    • 5.逻辑主语为不定代词,如:someone, everything, something;
      • They complained about everything going wrong.
  • 注意特殊句型
    • Would/Do you mind + V-ing?你介意…吗?
      • Would you mind my opening the window? It’ s very hot in here. 你介意我打开窗户吗?这里太热了!
      • Do you mind handing me that book? 介意把那本书给我吗?
    • Would/Do you mind + if + 句子?
      • Do you mind if… (真实语气:一般现在时)
        • Do you mind if I smoke here?
      • Would you mind if… (虚拟语气:一般过去时)
        • Would you mind if I smoked here?
  • 造句练习
    • 1.我记得他曾经承诺,一旦我们遇到麻烦(get into trouble)他就会来帮助我们。
      • 1.I remember his/him once promising to help us if we got into trouble.
    • 2.你介意我提一个建议吗?
      • 2.Would you mind my/me making a suggestion.
    • 3.老师拒绝接受我的建议让我很恼火。
      • 3.My teacher’s refusing to accept my suggestion upset me.

动名词短语的时态和语态变化

  • 动名词短语和分词短语完全一样,没有“时”的变化,只有“态”的变化,而且同样只有一般态完成态。同样,和分词短语一样,动名词的两种态,均有主动语态被动语态两种语态
  • 当动名词的动作和主句主语同时发生,用一般态。如果是表示被动的含义,要用被动语态。注意:动名词短语如果是being,任何时候都不能省略
    • No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements.没有人能避免受广告的影响。(一般态,被动语态)
    • Everyone appreciates being appreciated.每个人都喜欢得到赞赏。(一 般态,被动语态)
    • There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about. 世界上比被人议论更糟糕的一件事,就是根本没人去议论。(王尔德名言 )
    • Being deeply loved by someone gives you strength, while loving someone deeply gives you courage. 人爱者有力,爱人者勇。(老子)
  • 当动名词的动作,发生在主句动作之前时,要用完成态。(但动名词短语具有名词性质,时态要求没有分词那么严格,此时用一般态也不算错误)
    • No good thing can be enjoyed by us, without having cost labor. 不付出辛劳,我们就不能享受任何美好的事物。(完成态,主动语态)。本句如果用No good thing can be enjoyed by us, without costing labor.也不算错误,但是用完成态更好,因为是先劳动,再享受。
    • I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.我很感激两年前得到一次出国留学的机会。(完成态,被动语态)
  • 两个短语为固定搭配,虽说是主动的形式,但表达被动的含义
    • sth. need doing: 某事需要被做
      • The classroom is so dirty that it needs cleaning thoroughly. 教室很脏,需要彻底清洁。
    • sth. be worth doing: 某事值得被做
      • By this time, a Lancaster bomber in reasonable condition was worth rescuing. 这个时候,一架状态良好的lancaster轰炸机是值得拯救的。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.这台电视机开关的声音在大街上都能被听到。
      • 1.The noise of the television being opened and closed can be heard in the street.
    • 2.我一直后悔上学时没有更加努力的学习。
      • 2.I have always regretted not having studied harder at school.
    • 3.墙角处的那个人承认对这家公司的经理撒了谎(tell a lie)。
      • 3.The man in the corner confessed to having told a lie to the manager of company.
    • 4.马克每次违反交通规则(break traffic regulation)以后都常常试图逃避被罚款。
      • 4.Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic regulations.
    • 5.我们的现代文明绝不能被认为(be thought of as)是短期内建立的。
      • 5.Our modern civilization must not be thought as having been created in a short period of time.

11.如何正确使用不定式短语

概述

  • 不定时同时具有和动名词与分词类似的功能。要特别注意,不定时有“逻辑将要”的含义,故其动作发生在前面的动词之后,而且多表达意愿、目的、企图等

不定式短语的构成和功能

  • 1.名词从句的化简:作主语,及物动词的宾语,表语,宾语补语
  • 2.状语从句的化简:作状语
  • 3.定语从句的化简:作定语

名词从句的化简

  • 作主语
    • 概述
      • To make large sums of money is my dream. 挣大钱是我的梦想。(相当于That I wilI make large sums of money is my dream)
      • 注意:如果本句用Making large sums of money is my dream. 也对,但是用不定式暗示“我要去挣钱”,但目前还没有挣到钱。现代英语中,不定式和动名词作主语一般可通用。
    • 不定式作主语时,可用形式主语It取代,然后将不定式放在句子主干之后
      • It was his job to repair bicycles and at that time he used to work fourteen hours a day.他那时的工作是修理自行车,并且通常是一天工作14个小时。(相当于It was his job that he repaired bicycles…)
      • So, it comes as a surprise to learn that giant fish are terrifying the divers on North Sea oil rigs. 因此,听说北海石油钻井平台上的潜水员受到巨型鱼类的恐吓,确实很让人吃惊。(相当于it comes as a surprise that we learn giant fish ….)
    • 和动名词短语一样,不定式短语作主语时,一律视为第三人称单数!但and连接的两个不定式短语作主语时,视为复数
      • To become a great scientist is his ultimate goaI. 成为伟大的科学家是他的终极目标。
      • To study and to play are equally important. 学习和玩耍同样重要。
    • 造句练习
      • 1.成为职业篮球选手是我的抱负之一。
        • To become a professional basketball player is one of my ambitions. /It is one of my ambitions to become a professional basketball player.
      • 2.精通一门外语需要不断的努力。
        • To master a foreign language takes constant effort. /It takes constant effort to master a foreign language.
      • 3.提高我们的生产力是我们今年的主要目标。
        • To increase our productivity is our main goal this year. /It is our main goal this year to increase our productivity.
      • 4.对于某些人而言,活着就是受苦。
        • For some people, to live is to suffer.
      • 5.一天大笑三次有益健康。
        • It is good for your health to laugh three times a day.
      • 6.犯错是人之常情,宽恕则超凡入圣。
        • To err is human; to forgive is divine.
      • 7.知道做什么是智慧,知道怎么做是技能。
        • To know what to do is wisdom. To know how to do it is skilI.
      • 8.让自己的孩子诚实是教育的开端。
        • To make your children capable of honesty is the beginning of education.
      • 9.爱是世界上最美的动词。
        • To love is the most beautiful verb in the worId.
      • 10.人生得一知己足矣。
        • It is enough to have one close friend in one’ s life.
      • 11.诅咒黑暗不如点亮一支蜡烛。 (临渊羡鱼,不如退而结网)
        • It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.
  • 作及物动词的宾语:(绝对不能作介词的宾语)
    • attempt企图,choose选择,decide决定,expect期望,hope希望,intend打算,manage设法,offer/volunteer主动提议,plan计划,want要,wish希望,endeavor努力
    • 大部分及物动词,其后即可用不定式,也可用动名词,比如begin doing = begin to do
    • 但是表示“企图”或者“意愿”的及物动词,其宾语是“将要发生的事情”,所以通常只能用不定式作宾语
      • Debbie is only eleven years old and she hopes to set up a new world record. 黛比只有11岁,她希望创一项新的世界纪录。(相当于…that she can set up a new world record. )
      • Last Christmas, the circus owner, Jimmy Gates, decided to take some presents to a children's hospital. 去年圣诞节,马戏团老板吉米.盖茨决定送些礼物给儿童医院。
      • It has four Rolls-Royce Merlin engines, but the group will need to have only three of them rebuilt. 该飞机装装配有4台罗尔斯-罗伊斯的默林发动机,但是他们只需要修复其中的3台。(相当于…that they will have only three of them rebuilt. )
      • The pilot managed to circle the balloon for some time. 飞行员设法绕着气球飞了一阵。
    • 在第四大句型中,不定式作不完全及物动词的宾语时,必须用形式宾语it取代,加上宾语补语之后,再加不定式
      • 在前面的名词从句部分,学过形式宾语句型:某人 认为 做某事 是怎么样的
      • 比如:我认为每天多喝水很有必要
      • I think it necessary that I should drink a lot of water.
      • 同样,本句型中,如果宾语是不定式,也要用形式宾语
      • think, believe, find, deem, consider + it + (to be) + 名词或形容词(补语)+ 不定式(宾语)
      • 其中to be可省略
      • 所以:I think it necessary to drink a lot of water.
        • I consider it a great honor to be invited to dinner. 我认为能被邀请参加晚宴是很大的荣幸。
        • I deem it a great honor to serve you. 我认为为您服务是一项光荣。
        • A Frenchman, for instance, might find it hard to laugh at a Russian joke. 例如,法国人听完一则俄国笑话可能很难发笑。
    • 和名词从句不同,不定式短语还可以和动词make构成宾补句型,用于表示“使某种事情变得怎么样”:make + it + (to be) + 名词或形容词(补语)+ 不定式(宾语)
      • The invention of computers has made it possible to free man from the complex labor. 计算机的发明使得人们有可能从繁杂劳动中解放出来。
      • I made it my business to know all about them. 我把了解他们作为我的业务。
    • 造句练习
      • 1.我主动提议帮玛丽忙,但她拒绝了(turn sb. down)。
        • I offered to give Mary a hand, but she turned me down.
      • 2.我们企图说服约翰戒烟,但没有效果。
        • We attempted to persuade John to quit smoking, but in vain.
      • 3.我不觉得理解V0A的慢速英语节目有难度。
        • I don’t think it difficult to understand the VOA Special English.
      • 4.虽然声音被听得很清楚,但费了我很长时间才作出反应。
        • Though the sound could be heard clearly, it took me a long time to react.
    • 有些及物动词,既可以用动名词也可以用不定式作宾语,但是意义不同。要区分很简单:动名词表示已经做过的事情,不定式表示正打算做的事情
      • stop doing:停止做某事
      • stop to do:停下来去做某事
      • remember doing:记得做过某事
      • remember to do:记得去做某事
      • forget doing:忘记做过某事
      • forget to do:忘记去做某事
  • 作表语(名词性)
    • 概述
      • The only way to do this was to operate. 搞清的唯一办法就是手术。
      • My hope is to become a scientist like Einstein. 我的希望就是做一个像爱因斯坦那样的科学家。
    • 主语是人的时候,不定式作表语表示一定会发生的情况(计划,命令,肯定推测等)
      • I am to realize the goal of life. 我一定要实现人生的目标。(肯定推测)
      • You are to be back by 10 o’ clock. 你必须十点以前回来。(命令)
      • You are not to smoke in the reading-room. 你不能在阅读室吸烟。(用于否定句表示“禁止”)
    • 特征动词的表语,通常用不定式(to be可省略):seem似乎是,appear看起来是,prove被证明是,turn out结果是
      • The majority of people seem to prefer TV to radio. 多数人喜欢电视胜过广播。
      • These birds seem unaffected by climate.这些鸟似乎不受气候的影响。
      • He appears a perfectly normaI person. 他看上去是一个完全正常的人。
      • The search proved difficult. 这次搜索被证明是很困难的。
      • He turned out to be right. 结果他是对的。
      • Babies of two months old do not appear to be reluctant to enter the water. 两个月的婴儿并未显得不愿意入水。
      • By this time, a Lancaster bomber in reasonable condition was worth rescuing. 这个时候,一架状态良好的lancaster轰炸机是值得拯救的。
      • The operation, which lasted for over four hours, proved to be very difficult because of the hard resin which covered the skin. 手术持续了4个多小时,非常难做,因为皮肤上覆盖着一层硬硬的树脂。
  • 作宾语补语 或 被动语态的主语补语:此时不定式如果是to be,可以省略
    • She wanted him to repair their son's bicycle! 她叫他去修理孙子的自行车。
    • When it was eventually brought to shore, it was found to be over thirteen feet long. 当终于把它弄上岸后,人们发现它身长超过了13英尺。(本句中to be可省略)
  • 作同位语
    • My plan to visit the town was refused. 我的参观小镇这个计划被拒绝了。
    • (相当于同位语从句My plan that I will visit the town was refused. )
  • 疑问词+不定式:构成名词短语,用法和名词相同
    • I was just wondering how to spend the morning. 我正不知道怎么消磨这一上午呢。
    • (相当于宾语从句I was just wondering ^how I would spend the morning.` )

状语从句的简化(目的,结果)

  • 概述
    • 分词短语作状语,可以表示伴随,时间,原因,结果,目的,方式,让步,条件。但是不定式状语只能表目的和结果
  • 作目的状语
    • Fifteen policemen had to push very hard to get him off the main street. 15个警察不得不用很大的力气把它推离主要街道。(相当于目的状语从句… that they could get him off…)
    • When the bull got close to him, he clumsily stepped aside to let it pass. 当公牛逼近他时,他踉跄地住旁边一闪,牛扑空了。(相当于目的状语从句….so that he could let it pass. 由于let是不完全及物动词,故此不定式短语类似第四大句型,it是不定式to let的宾语,pass是宾语补语. )
    • It was not long before a helicopter arrived on the scene to rescue the survivors of the plane crash. 不久,一架直升飞机飞抵飞机失事现场,来搭救这几个幸存者。(相当于目的状语从句…so that it could rescue…)
    • Specially-made lanterns are hung outside each house to help the dead to find their way. 特制的灯笼挂在各家的门外,为的是帮助亡灵看清道路。(相当于 目的状语从句…. that they could help the dead..由于heIp是不完全及物动词,故此不定式短语类似第四大句型)
  • 有时候为了强调目的状语,可以将不定式放在句首
    • To acquire knowledge, one must study; but to acquire wisdom, one must observe. 要想获得知识,就必须学习,但是要想获得智慧,就必须学会观察。
    • To be really happy and really safe, one ought to have at least two or three hobbies, and they must alI be real. 要想真正幸福和平安,一个人至少应该有两三种业余爱好,而且必须是真正的爱好。
  • 作结果状语(不定式表示意料之外的结果,而分词短语表示意料之中的结果)
    • Farm laborers said that they always woke up to find the work had been done overnight. 农场工们说,常常一早起来却发现有人在夜里把活干了。(意料之外)
    • The small company has beaten other big companies, to win the title of best business-class service. 这个小航空公司击败了其他大公司从而赢得了最佳商务舱服务奖。(意料之外)
  • 造句练习
    • 1.憎恨别人,犹如为了除掉一只老鼠而烧掉自己的房子。
      • Hating people is like burning down your own house to get rid of a rat.
    • 2.为了赢得这个奖,你应该很努力地奋斗。
      • To win the award, you should work very hard.

定语从句的化简

  • 关系代词作主语引导的定语从句化简(修饰的名词被绝对性形容词修饰的时候)
    • I have no friend to advise me. 我没有可以给我忠告的朋友。(相当于I have no friend who can advise me. ) (因为本句中有绝对性形容词no,所以用不定式作定语,而不用分词)
    • He was the first person to greet me when I arrived there.当我到那儿的时候,他是第一个来迎接我的人。(因为本句中有绝对性形容词first,所以用不定式作定语,而不用分词)
  • 关系代词作宾语引导的定语从句化简。(通常表示“有某事要做”)
    • I will write a letter. 我要写一封信。
    • I have a letter to write. 我有一封信要写。
    • 这两句话中文意思其实是一样的,英文意思也是一样的。此时,不定式to write作定语,修饰名词letter, 但是一定要注意,这里的不定式动词write是及物动词!!! 其修饰的名词letter就是不定式的逻辑宾语! !
    • He never has anything to do.他从来都是无事可做。(相当于He never has anything that he can do. )
    • 注意:此时的不定式必须是及物动词或者及物动词短语。
    • 请看这个句子: He is a nice man to work. (X)
    • 这个句子中,work是不及物动词,自然不能接宾语man, 所以,必须改为: He is a nice man to work with. 他人不错,可以与他共事。
  • 关系副词引导的定语从句化简:此时不定式短语必须是不及物动词,或者及物动词+宾语
    • The time to go is July. (不及物动词go) 应该在7月份去。(相当于The time when we should go is July. )
    • It is time to draw a conclusion. (及物动词draw+宾语conclusion) 到下结论的时间了。
    • A good place to eat food is the Sichuan restaurant around the corner. 一个吃饭的好地方就是拐角的那家川菜馆。(相当于A good place where we can eat …)
    • The only way to do this was to operate. 搞清的唯一办法就是手术。(相当于The only way in which they can do this…)
  • 造句练习
    • 1.我有一封信要写。
      • I have a letter to write.
    • 2.他是做最后决定的最佳人选。
      • He is the best man to make the final choice.
    • 3.在天黑前,我们还有很长的路要走。
      • We had a long journey to make before nightfall.
    • 4.她有四个孩子要照顾。
      • She has four children to take care of.
    • 5.下一列到达的火车是从纽约开过来的。
      • The next train to arrive is from New York.
    • 6.克林顿是这次空难中唯一的幸存者。
      • Clinton is the only person to survive the air crash.
    • 7.角色扮演(role playing)是一种有效而且自得其乐的英语学习方法。
      • Role playing is an effective and enjoyable way to learn English.

不定式的逻辑主语

  • 当不定式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的时候,通常用下面的结构:for + 名词 + 不定式
    • He expects for his sister to meet you. 他期望他妹妹认识你。(相当于He expects that his sister can meet you. )
    • There is no need for you to go. 你没有必要去。
    • Dentists always ask questions when it is impossible for you to answer. 牙科医生们总是在你无法作出回答的时候向你提出问题。
    • Chinese parents wanted their children to be successful, while American parents expressed a desire for their children to be happy. 中国的父母希望孩子成功,而美国的父母表达了他们的愿望,那就是希望他们孩子幸福。
  • 表达“对于…来说做某事是怎样的”,通常都可以采用这种不定式带上逻辑主语的结构:It is + 形容词 + for sb. to do sth.
    • It is necessary for him to study English every day. 对于他来说,每天学习英语是很有必要的。
  • 代词作不定式的逻辑主语时,用宾格。
    • My sister told me that she would love for me to babysit for her. 姐姐告诉我她很想要我帮她照顾小孩
  • 在It is + 形容词 + for sb. to do sth.句型中,表示人物性格的形容词(聪明,善良,粗心,愚蠢。。等)和不定式连用时,要用of代替for
    • It’s wise of you not to argue with your boss. 明智的做法是不和你的老板争吵。
    • It was very careless of him to make such silly mistakes. 他太粗心了,居然犯了如此愚蠢的错误。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.此刻,我很难表达我的心情。
      • It’s very difficult for me to express my feelings at this moment.
    • 2.你有必要亲自去那里一趟。
      • It’s necessary for you to go there in person.
    • 3.他很慷慨,把它的车借给了我。
      • It’s generous of him to lend me his car.

不定式短语的时态和语态变化

  • 不定式短语没有“时”的变化,只有“态”的变化
    • 不定式的4态构成非常简单,就是to+4态
    • 而不定式的被动语态,就是to+4态的被动语态(但进行态和完成进行态很少用于被动语态)。
    • 以动词do为例:
    • He wanted some photographs to be taken when he visited Taiwan. 他在台湾参观的时候想找人拍几张照片。(一般态,被动语态)
  • 不定式的完成态,表示不定式的动作发生在谓语动作之前
    • Fisherman and sailors sometimes claim to have seen monsters in the sea. 渔夫和水手们有时声称自己看到过海里的妖怪。(完成态,主动语态)
    • This building was said to have been built from their own designs.这据说是他们自行设计建造的。(完成态, 被动语态)
  • 常见固定搭配
    • claim to do: 宣称
    • be said to do: 据说
    • be supposed/thought/expected to do: 应该
      • Everyone went to the funeral, for the ‘ghost’ was none other than Eric Cox, a third brother who was supposed to have died as a young man. 大家都去参加了葬礼,因为那“鬼”不是别人,正是农场主的兄弟埃里克.考科斯。人们以为埃里克年轻时就死了。
      • When I was a boy, my grandfather told me how a German taxi driver, Franz Bussman, found a brother who was thought to have been killed twenty years before. 当我是个孩子的时候,我祖父给我讲了一位德国出租汽车司机弗朗兹.巴斯曼如何找到了据信已在20年前死去的兄弟的事。
    • seem/appear: 似乎
  • 不定式的进行态,表示不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生。(不定式进行态不常用,通常只用于seem/appear, happen等动词之后),表达“似乎正在做某事”,“碰巧正在做某事”等等
    • A pilot noticed a balloon which seemed to be making for a Royal Air Force Station nearby. 一个飞行员发现了一只气球,它像是正飞往附近的一个皇家空军基地。
  • 不定式的完成进行态,是完成态的延续动词用法(少见)
    • The are said to have been collecting stamps.
    • The are said to have collected stamps.
    • 据说他们一直在收集邮票。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.他想要找人立刻把这些信打印出来。
      • He wanted the letters to be typed at once.
    • 2.我很抱歉在这个时候还用这么多问题来打扰你。
      • I’m sorry to have bothered you with so many questions on such an occasion.
    • 3.她妈妈走进来的时候,他假装正在睡觉。
      • He pretended to be sleeping when his mother came in.
    • 4.那个小女孩今晚好像一直在看电视。
      • The little girl seems to have been watching TV all this evening.

12.条件状语从句和虚拟语气

分类

  • 条件状语从句分为两大类:真实条件状语从句和虚拟语气
  • 请看两句话:
  • 1.如果我明天发了工资,我就请你吃饭。
  • 2.如果明天我彩票中了500万, 我就请你吃饭。

真实条件状语从句

  • if(如果…):后面可加then,如果then省略了,也隐含在句子的意思里
    • 表示客观事实,主句用一般现在时或现在进行时,从句用一般现在时(可记忆为”主现从现”)
      • If I eat too much, I feel uncomfortable. 如果我吃太多,就会觉得不舒服。(真实的情况,而且主句用的是一般现在时,表示这是客观事实。)
      • If you can’t beat them, join them. 如果你不能打败他们,就加入他们。(谚语 )
      • If you drink and drive, you are breaking the law. 如果你酒驾,那你就是在违法了。(真实的情况,而且主句用的现在进行时,加强语气,给人一种生动的感觉)
    • 表示将来可能发生的情况,主句用一般将来时,从句要用一般现在时,此时主句的will表示肯定或很可能发生的事情。(真实的情况,而且主句用的一般将来时,表示这是推测)(可记忆为”主将从现”)
      • If you park your car in the wrong place, a traffic policeman will soon find it. 一旦你把汽车停错了地方,交通警很快就会发现。
      • You will be very lucky if he lets you go without a ticket. 如果他没给你罚单就放你走了,算你走运。
      • If she comes, she will get a surprise. 如果她来了,她会感到非常惊奇了。
      • 注:如果主句的肯定程度不是很高,就可以用别的情态助动词代替will。
        • Are you successful in language learning? If it is less successful, you should do well to try the above ways. 你在语言学习方面成功吗?如果你不那么成功,你应该好好尝试以上的方法。
        • If they are not brought to the surface soon they may lose their lives. 如果不把他们尽快救到地面上来,他们就有可能丧生。
        • If the students are interested in sports, they can join different sports clubs. 如果学生对运动感兴趣,他们可以加入不同的运动俱乐部。
    • 如果在条件状语从句中出现了will,不是表示将来时,而是表示意愿
      • If I will prepare, my chance will come someday. 如果我愿意准备,总有一天机会将来临。
      • If a man will not seek knowledge, it will not seek him. 如果一个人不去找知识,知识也不会去找他。
  • unless(除非。。):unless引导的条件状语从句,其主句否定句比肯定句更常用
    • All dreams are of no value unless they are followed by action. 如果不付诸行动,一切梦想都毫无价值。
    • I won’t call you, unless something unexpected happens. 除非有意外事情发生,我将不会给你打电话。
  • 其它常用的连接副词
    • suppose/supposing (that)
      • Suppose you make some mistakes, it’s not the end of the world. 假如你犯了一些错误,这并不是世界的末日。
    • on condition that
    • so long as/as long as
      • So long as there's something to identify, we will give people their money back. 只要有东西可以识别,我们会把钱还给人家的。
      • My parents don’t mind what job I do as long as I am happy. 我父母不介意我做什么工作,只要我快乐就行。
    • providing/provided (that)
      • We can do whatever we wish to do provided (that) our wish is strong. 如果我们的愿望很强,我们就能做任何我们想做的事情。
    • assuming
      • Assuming you are willing to work hard, I see a great future waiting for you. 如果你愿意努力学习,我看到光明的未来在等着你。
    • once
      • You’ll like her once you get to know her. 你一旦了解她,就喜欢她了。
    • in case
      • In case you fail, don’t be discouraged. Keep trying. 假如你失败了,不要气馁, 要继续努力。
  • only if (只有…才)和if only(只要…就)
    • He can continue to support himself and his family only if he produces a surplus. 只有生产有了盈余,他才能继续养活自己和家人。
    • Only if I get a job will I have enough money to go to school. 我只有找到了工作才有足够的钱上学。(only if放句首,主句要倒装)
    • The Almighty has given men arms long enough to reach the stars if only they would put them out. 万能的造物主赋予人类足以够到星辰的手臂,只要人类愿意伸出。
    • 注: only if前可以加上but
    • I’ll do that, but only if we set a few rules. 我可以干,但我们得定几条规矩。
  • 造句练习
    • 1.如果我熬夜(stay up)过半夜,第二天早上起来看起来就很糟。
      • 1.If I stay up over midnight, I looked awful the tomorrow morning.
    • 2.你如果接受这份昂贵的礼物,就是在受贿了(take a bribe)。
      • 2.If you accept this expensive gift, you are taking a bribe.
    • 3.如果明天下雨,我们将取消这个活动。
      • 3.If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel this activity.
    • 4.你们大伙如果形成团队(team up),可能有助 于形成个双赢的(win-win)局 面。
      • 4.If you guys team up, it may help create a win-win situation.
    • 5.除非你加紧用功,否则你就不能通过考试。
      • 5.Unless you work harder, you will not pass the examination.

虚拟语气的常规用法

  • 概述
    • 虚拟语气,就是不可能发生的情况的假设,汉语里边的虚拟语气是通过语境实现的,在英语的虚拟语气则是通过谓语动词的变化实现的
    • 1.就算把整个太平洋的水倒出,也浇不灭我对你爱情的火焰! (暗示:整个太平洋的水能全部倒出来吗?不能!)
    • 2.如果上天再给我一次重来的机会, 我会对那个女孩说3个字我爱你! (暗示:能有重来的机会吗?没有! )
  • 虚拟语气的常规构成
  • 现在虚拟
    • ‘Young man,’ she answered, ‘if you ate more and talked less, we would both enjoy our dinner!’ “年轻人,”她回答说,“如果你多吃点,少说点,我们两个都会吃得好的!”
    • The tunnel would be well-ventilated if tall chimneys were built above sea-level. 如果再建些伸出海面的高大的烟囱状通风管,隧道就具备了良好的通风条件。
    • This would solve the problem of ventilation, for if a train entered this tunnel, it would draw in fresh air behind it. 因为如果有列火车开进隧道,它就把新鲜空气随之抽进了隧道。
    • if they knew how difficult it was to drill through the hard rock, they would lose heart. 如果他们知道了钻透那坚硬的岩石有多么困难,他们会丧失信心的。
  • 注:现在虚拟be动词的过去式用were
    • If I were you, I would take the subway. 如果我是你,我会坐地铁。
    • 现在虚拟中的“现在”,不一定是发生在现在的事情,也可能是“常态”,也就是对客观事实的虚拟。比如“如果太阳从西边出来,中国队就能打败巴西队”
  • 将来虚拟:比较少见,只是表达一种可能性
    • If Peter should come again, I would throw him out. 如果彼得再来的话,我会把他轰出去。
  • 过去虚拟
    • If, at the time, the British had not feared invasion, the tunnel would have been completed. 如果不是因为那时英国人害怕入侵,隧道早已建成了。
    • If the Houses of Parliament had not been burned down in 1834, the great clock would never have been erected. 如果不是国会大厦在1834年被焚毁的话,这座大钟永远也不会建造。
    • If there had not been a hard layer of rock beneath the soil, they would have completed the job in a few hours. 如果不是因为土壤下面有一层坚硬的岩石,他们的营救工作仅用几个小时就可以完成了。
  • 补充:if从句中的were, should, had可以放在主语前,同时省略if
    • If he were here, I would tell him the truth. = Were he here, I would tell him the truth.
    • If it should rain, our plan would be spoiled. = Should it rain, our plan would be spoiled.
    • If you had helped me, I could have finished the work on time. = Had you helped me, I could have finished the work on time.
    • Should humanity leave Earth to travel across the universe,” she said, concluding her impassioned explanation, “it would be no different from an infant leaving its mother in the middle of a desert!” “人类在宇宙间离开了地球,”她充满激情地说,“就像婴儿在沙漠中离开了母亲!” ——《The wandering earth》Liu Cixin (刘慈欣《流浪地球》)
  • 造句练习
    • 1.如果当时你帮助我的话,我就可以完成任务了。(当时你没有帮助我)
      • 1.If you had helped me then, I would have accomplished the mission.
    • 2.要是我是你,我会坐地铁去那儿。(可惜我不是你)
      • 2.If I were you, I would go there by subway.
    • 3.如果我有100万美元,我就会买一套豪华别墅。(可惜我是穷光蛋)
      • 3.IfI had a million dollars, I would buy a luxury villa.
    • 4.万一火山爆发了,有可能造成一场可怕的灾难。
      • 4.If the volcano should erupt, it would cause a terrible disaster.

条件状语从句转化为分词短语

  • 分词短语表条件,单从分词短语本身,是看不出真实和虚拟的,只有从主句的时态才能看出来
    • Cooked in wine, snails are a great luxury in various parts of the world. 蜗牛加酒烧煮后,便成了世界上许多地方的一道珍奇的名菜。 (因为主句是一般现在时,所以本句的分词短语是真实条件,相当于真实条件状语从句If snails cooked in wine, …)
    • Weather permitting, we’ll go fishing. 如果天气允许,我们就去钓鱼。(因为主句是一般将来时,所以本句的分词独立主格结构是真实条件,相当于真实条件状语从句If weather permits, we’ll go fishing. )
    • Added to steel, chromium increases the metal’s hardness. 把铬加进钢里,能增加钢的硬度。(相当于真实条件状语从句If chromium is added to steel, it increases the metal’s hardness.)
    • Given more time, I would be able to complete it. 如果多给我一些时间,我就能把它做完。(相当于虚拟条件状语从句If I were given more time, I would be able to complete it.)
    • Given the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grew the international stars. 如果给予适当形式的训练,这些十几岁的足球运动员有一天会成为国际明星。

虚拟语气的特殊用法

  • 与客观真理相反的强烈虚拟语气,从句用were to + 动词原形,主句用过去将来时(would可改为should, might, could)
    • If I were to live my life over again, I would have you as my wife. 如果有来生,我一定娶你为妻。
    • If the sun were to rise in the west, I would marry you. 要想我嫁给你?除非太阳从西边出来。
  • 主观意志动词“建议”,“要求”,“命令”3大类之后的宾语从句,要使用助动词should(可省略)
    • 建议:suggest, advise, propose
      • He suggested that a double railway tunnel (should) be built. 他提议建一条双轨隧道, 这样就解决了通风问题。
    • 要求:demand, require, request, insist
      • In life, your goals may require that you (should) try different approaches and persevere. 生活中,你的目标或许要求你尝试不同的方法,然后持之以恒。
    • 命令:order, command
  • should (ought to) have + 过去分词,表示与过去事实相反的推测,译为“早应,本应该…”
    • He should have known that the police would never allow this sort of thing. 他本该知道警察绝不会允许这类事情发生。
    • Those who failed to get in need not have felt disappointed as many of the artistes who should have appeared did not come. 那些没能进到场内的人没有必要感到失望,因为很多应该出场的专业演员都没有来。
    • A policeman approached Jimmy and told him he ought to have gone along a side-street as Jumbo was holding up the traffic. 一个警察走过来告诉吉米,他应该走一条小路,因为江波阻碍了交通。
  • whether引导的让步状语从句,可用虚拟语气,注:这种句型也可倒装:去掉whether,把be放在从句句首
    • Whether it be bird, fish or beast, the porpoise is intrigued with anything that is alive. 海豚对凡是活的东西都感兴趣,不管是鸟、是鱼,还是野兽。也可变成Be bird, fish or beast, the porpoise is intrigued with anything that is alive.
    • After all, all living creatures live by feeding on something else, whether it be plant or animal, dead or alive. 因为一切生物都靠吃别的东西来活命,不管这种东西是植物还是动物,死的还是活的。
    • Be it a rock or a grain of sand, they sink as the same in water. 无论是岩石还是沙粒,在水中都会沉没。
    • All students of English, be they native speakers or those who are studying English as a second language, will profit from this book. 所有学习英语的学生都将从本书中受益,不管是把英语作为母语还是第二语言的学生。
  • wish后面的宾语从句,必须使用虚拟语气
    • 现在虚拟,用一般过去时
      • I wish he were here. 我真希望他在这儿。
    • 过去虚拟,用过去完成时
      • I wish I had kept faithful to my childhood dreams. 我希望当初信守儿时的梦想。
    • 将来虚拟,用过去将来时。(would 可改为should, might, could)
      • I wish you would keep on trying to improve your English. 我希望你继续坚持提高英语水平。
  • if only用于虚拟,表示“要是…该多好啊”(时态变化同wish)
    • If only he were here. 要是他在这儿该多好啊!
    • If only I had known it earlier. 要是我早点知道这件事该多好啊。
    • If only I would make a lot of money. 要是我发财该多好啊。
  • as if/ as though用于虚拟,表示“就像…一样”(时态变化同wish)
    • He acted as if he had never lived in England before. 他的举动就好像他从未在英国生活过一样。
    • I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect of elders – as if mere age were a reason for respect. 我不会用应当尊重长者这一套陈词滥调来为我自己辨护,似乎年长就是受人尊敬的理由。
    • I felt as if I had stumbled into a nightmare country, as you sometimes do in dreams. 我感到自己就像平时作梦那样迷迷糊糊地闯进了恶梦境地。就像在恶梦里一样。
    • It looks as if there would be an exciting race across the Channel. 看来会有一场激烈的飞越英吉利海峡的竞争。
  • would rather / would sooner用于虚拟,表示“宁可….”
    • 现在和将来虚拟,均用一般过去时
      • I would rather you had more health than wealth. 我宁愿你有更多的健康而不是财富。(现在虚拟)
      • I would rather my father kept his mind and body active after he retires in three years. 我宁愿三年后父亲退休以后能保持身心活跃。(将来虚拟)
    • 过去虚拟,用过去完成时
      • I would rather my son had become a doctor, but he became a teacher after graduating. 我宁愿我儿子做一名医生,但是他毕业后当了教师。
  • lest/in case/for fear的虚拟,表示“以防…”,谓语均要使用should(可省略) + 动词原形
    • Weigh well your words lest they (should) be swords. 要斟酌自己的言辞,以防他们伤人。
    • Take time when time comes, in case it (should) steal away. 时机来临的时候要抓住,以防它偷偷溜走。
    • We must not promise what we should not, for fear that we (should) be called on to perform what we cannot. 不要许诺不该做的事,以防别人要求我们做我们做不了的事。
  • what if…? 如果…会怎么样呢?
    • What if he doesn’t agree? 如果他不同意该怎么办呢?
    • But what if your data do not support your hypothesis? Perhaps different experiments are needed. 但是如果你的数据不支持你的假设该怎么办呢?或许需要做不同的实验。( 加州小学3年级科学课本)
  • 造句练习
    • 1.你若中了一亿美元,你可能会做什么?
      • 1.If you were to win 100 million dollars, what might you do?
    • 2.如果我五年前遇到她,今天她可能就是我的妻子了。
      • 2.If I had met her five years ago, she might be my wife today.
    • 3.我建议你把这篇作文撕掉,再从头开始写。
      • 3.I suggest that you (should) tear up the composition and start over again.
    • 4.我们几个月前就该预见到这一困难。
      • 4.We should have foreseen the trouble months ago.
    • 5.既然已完成了工作,你本就应该好好休息一下。
      • 5.You ought to have a good rest now that you’ve finished the work.
    • 6.所有物质,不论是气体、液体、或固体,都是由原子构成的。
      • 6.All matter, whether it be gas, liquid or solid, is made up of atoms.
    • 7.我希望我能改掉吸烟的习惯。
      • 7.I wish I could get out of the habit of smoking.
    • 8.我倒希望你当初别把这一切都告诉我。
      • 8.I wish you hadn’t told me all this.
    • 9.我多么希望你妹妹能在这儿。
      • 9.I wish your sister were here.
    • 10.太疲倦了。 如果明天能不上班多好。
      • 10.I am so tired. If only I would take the day off tomorrow.
    • 11.玛丽对着我微笑,仿佛他已经了解我想要什么。
      • 11.Mary is smiling at me as if she had understood what I want.
    • 12.我们小声说话以免吵醒婴儿。
      • 12.We talked in a low voice lest we should wake the baby up.
    • 13.我要是没有买这栋房子又会怎么样呢?
      • 13.What if I have not bought this house?